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Step 1 GI

What is contained in the hepatoduodenal ligament? hepatic artery, portal vein, common bile duct
The falciform ligament carries a remnant of what structure? fetal umbilical vein (adult = ligamentum teres)
Where are the splenic artery and vein located? splenorenal ligament (spleen to post abd wall)
What does Meissner's submucosal complex regulate? secretions, blood flow, absorption
At what level does the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta occur? L4
What venous structures are involved in internal hemorrhoids? superior rectal vein (IMV, portal) <--> middle and inferior rectal (IVC, systemic)
What arterial collateral circulation exists around the area of the duodenum? sup pancreaticoduodenal (celiac trunK) <--> inf pancreaticoduodenal (SMA)
What defect can lead to a diaphragmatic hernia? defective pleuroperitoneal membrane
Which inguinal ring(s) does a DIRECT inguinal hernia pass through? only through SUPERFICIAL (defect in ext oblique aponeurosis)
What border's create Hesselbach's triangle? MEDIAL: lateral border of rectus abdominis, LATERAL: inf epidgastric artery, INFERIOR: inguinal ligament
Persistence of what structure contributes to an indirect inguinal hernia? processus vaginalis
What is the function of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide? incr intestinal water and electrolyte secretion; incr relaxation of intestinal smooth muscle and sphincters
What cells release CCK? What is the stimulus? I cells (dudodenum and jejunum); incr FA or AA
What mediator stimulates G cells to release gastrin? vagus nerve --> gastrin-releasing peptide (thus, atropine can't block this)
How does gastrin incr the release of gastric acid? stimulates ECL cells to release Histamine (H2) receptor --> incr cAMP and activation of H/K ATPase
In what disease do you see hypertrophy of Brunner's glands? PUD
Where does salivary amylase cleave carbohydrates? alpha-1,4 linkages --> disaccharides
Where is folate absorbed? jejunum
what does bile consist of? bile salts (conj bile acids), phsopholipids, cholesterol, bilirubin, water, and ions
Describe the histology of a pleomorphic adenoma. epithelial cells intermixed w/ myxomatous and cartilaginous stroma; facial n. invovlement is sign of malignancy; high-rate of recurrence
What is the pathogenesis of a Cushing's ulcer? trauma to brain --> incr vagal stimulation and incr H production
What is a potential GU complication of diverticulitis? colovesical fistula --> pneumaturia
What small intestine tumor shows "dense core bodies" on EM? carcinoid tumor (most commonly in appendix)
What is the pathogenesis of Reye's syndrome? after viral infection and tx w/ salicylates, aspirin metabolites decr beta-oxidation by reversible inhibition of mitochondrial enzyme
What is Budd-Chiari syndrome? occlusion of IVC or hepatic veins w/ centrilobular congestion and necrosis; associated w/ polycythemia vera, pregnancy, HCC
In Wilson's disease, where does Cu accumulate? cornea, putamen (parkinsonism), STN (hemiballismus), cerebral cortex (dementia)
What is the MOA of Metoclopromaide? D2 receptor antagonist; incr resting tone, contractility, LES tone, and motility
Why are pt with Menetrier's disease at incr risk of stomach carcinoma? achlorhydria
Which HLAs is Celiac disease associated with? HLA-B8 and HLA-DW3
What Ab is found in autoimmune hepatitis? anti-smooth muscle
What causes mallory bodies to form in alcoholic hepatitis? damaged cytokeratin intermediate filaments in hepatocytes
What are the characteristic findings of Primary sclerosing cholangitis on ERCP? narrowing and dilation of bile ducts = "beading"
What is the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy? inr in aromatic AAs are converted to false NTs; incr in serum NH3
What is the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis? insult affects mitochondrial proteins and triggers CD8 T cell destruction of intralobular bile duct epithelium
What are the gross findings of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver? central depressed stellate scar with radiating fibrous septae; contains large blood vessels
What is Caroli disease? What other disease is it associated with? segmental dilation of intrahepatic bile ducts with portal tract fibrosis; ADPKD
What causes ARDS in acute pancreatitis? pancreatic phospholipases destroy surfactant
What is suggested of a pancreatic psuedocyst after acute pancreatitis? persistent amylase >7 days (collection of digested pancreatic tissue around pancreas)
What causes perivenular fibrosis in alcoholic hepatitis? acetaldehyde
Created by: ash0403