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Neuro Step I

What causes bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome after long term dialysis? deposition of beta2 microglobin
What are the sx of Lateral Medullary Syndrome? contralateral loss of pain/temp; ipsilateral dysphagia, hoarsness, decr gag reflex, facial paralysis (CN functions)
What passes through the optic canal? optic nerve, opthalmic a, central retinal v.
What info does the nucleus solitarius mediate? visceral sensory infor (taste VII, baroreceptors IX, gut distention X)
What muscle opens the jaw? lateral pterygoid
Which Alzheimer's drug is an NMDA receptor antagonist and helps prevent excitotoxicity? Memantine
Which antiseizure drug was designed as a GABA analog but primarily (-) HNA Ca channels? Gabapentin
What are the histo changes of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease? loss of neurons, gliosis, and striking spongiosis in cerebrum, cerebellum, sc; cerebellar atrophy
What is Binswanger disease? subcortical leukoencephalopathy associated w/ HTN; presence of multiple lacunar infarcts and progressive demyelination
What is the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease? failure in up-regulation of transcription of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which is a pro-survival factor for neurons in the striatum
What results from lesion in left geniculocalcarine tract? left hemianopia w/ macular sparing (PCA artery)
What is the pathogenesis of Frederich's ataxia? frataxin deficiency causes impaired mitochondrial Fe hemostasis and cells are more prone to apoptosis
What is compressed in a subfalcine hemorrhage? ant. cerebral a.
What structures are compressed in an uncal herniation? CNIII - fixed, dilated ipsilateral pupil, eye is deviated down and out; PCA - contralateral hemianopsia w/ macular sparing
What sx occur with nl pressure hydrocephalus wide based gait, urinary incontinence, dementia; caused by diminished reserve capacity of arachnoid villi
What is syringomyelia? fluid-filled syrinx w/in the cervical spinal cord causes decr pain/temp w/ weakness of upper extremities but intact light touch in "cape-like" distribution
What is amaruosis fugax? temporary "curtain" over one eye due to Hollenhorst plaque embolization to birfucation of retinal arteries
What are the sx of a TIA in the ant circulation? unilateral weakness/sensory sx, aphasia, amaurosis fugax
What are the sx of a TIA of the post circulation? 5 D's: dysarthria, diplopia, dysphagia, dizziness, dysequilibrium
What is the most common location of an emoblic stroke? distribution of the MCA
What are the sx of a pontine hemorrhage? CN deficits on one side and contralateral weakness/numbnes of arms and legs
What is the pathogenesis of MS? environmental trigger - activates TH cells to recognize CNS myelin basic protein --> cytokies that destroy myelin sheath and oligodendrocytes and Ab
What causes adrenoleukodystrophy? X-linked recessive; inability to catabolize VLCFA in peroxisomes --> loss of myelin, neuropathy, signs/sx of adrenal failure
What is the pathogenesis of amyloid production in AD? dysfunction of wingless integration pathway - activate glycogen synthase kinase 3beta --> phophorylation of beta amyloid and neural and synappic dysfunction; neuronal apoptosis and hyperphosphorylation of tau
Created by: ash0403