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nutrition 137

Nutrition Chapter 1

Food people eat and how bodies use it Nutrition
Scientific knowledge on human’s food requirements Nutritional science
Health profession for applying nutritional science Dietetian
Nutrition authority on the health care team Also referred to as clinical nutrition specialist or public health nutritionist Registered Dietitian (RD)
This must include meeting basic human needs Health
This seeks the full development of potential for all persons Wellness
-Attempts change only when illness or disease already exist -Little value for lifelong positive health Traditional Health
-Identify risk factors -Allows people to choose behaviors to minimize risk of disease Preventive Approach
-Well-developed body -Ideal weight for body composition -Good muscle development -Smooth skin, glossy hair, clear and bright eyes -Mental and physical alertness -Ability to resist disease -Increased life span Good Nutrition
The three primary nutrients includes CARBOHYDRATE, FATS AND PROTEINS
-Provide energy -Build tissue -Regulate metabolic processes -Individual nutrients have many special metabolic functions -No nutrient ever works alone. Nutrients in Food
-Primary source of fuel for heat and energy -Maintain body’s back-up store of quick energy -Should provide 45%-65% of total kilocalories Carbohydrates
-Animal and plant sources -Secondary (storage) form of heat and energy -Should provide no more than 20%-35% of total kilocalories Fats
-Source of energy when supply from carbohydrates and fats is insufficient -Primary function is tissue building -Should provide 10%-35% of total kilocalories Proteins
Builds hemoglobin in the blood IRON
Build central fat substance of cell walls Fatty acids
-Function as coenzyme factors -Components of cell enzymes in governing chemical reaction during cell metabolism Vitamins
Also serve as coenzyme factors Minerals
What percentage of adult body weight is water? 50-60%
-Obtained from a varied diet -Desired amounts should be balanced Optimal nutrition
-Less than desired amounts of nutrients -Limits work capacity, immune system, mental activity Under-nutrition
-Reserves depleted -Nutrient and energy intake insufficient Malnutrition
-Excess nutrient and energy intake over time -Produces harmful gross body weight -Excessive amounts of nutrient supplements over time Over-nutrition
-Published by the National Academy of Sciences -Updated every 5-10 years -Includes recommendations for each gender and age group Dietary Reference Intakes
Used when not enough evidence to establish the RDA Adequate intake (AI)
Sets maximum intake unlikely to pose adverse health risks Tolerable upper intake level (UL)
-Simple practical education tool -Basis for general meal planning and food-intake pattern -Promotes carbohydrates while limiting fat intake -Daily food-group choices may be spread over three or more meals Food Guide Pyramid
The process in which nutrients are taken into the cells lining the gastrointestinal tract. Absorption
Storage site for fat Adipose tissue
The metabolic process of building large substances from smaller parts; the opposite of catabolism. Anabolism
Created by: smensah