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What are the micro findings of Diabetic glomerulosclerosis? mesangial expansion, GBM thickening, glomerular sclerosis (in KW nodular form)
What are the key clinical findings in osteosarcoma? mixed areas of radiodense/radiolucent bone; periosteal new bone formation, lifting of cortex, Codman's triangle; commonly in metaphysis of long bone
What is globus hystericus? sensation of lump in throat associated w/ emotional triggers; no apparent clinical findings
What is the pathogenesis of gout? nl: crystals protected by apoE or B; when levels fluctuate or trauma occurs, bare crystals are exposed to IgG Ab --> neutrophil phagocytosis --> inflammatory cascade
What types of effects does excess vit A have on fetus? microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, early epiphyseal closure, growth retardation, spontaneous abortion
What causes DNA laddering? specific endonucleases during karyorrhexis (multiples of 180 bp)
What enzymes does Furanocumarin (grapefruit juice) inhibit? intestinal CYP450s
What is at highest risk for injury in AP dislocation of knee? popliteal artery - located deep in popliteal fossa close to articular surfaces of the joint
What is the most likely organism implicated in endometritis? Bacteroides
What happens after ligand-binding to tyrosine kinase receptor? receptor dimerizes and conformation change allows each to phosphorylate each other
What drugs cause hypersensitivity vasculitis? pens, cephs, sulfonamides, phenytoin, allopurinol
What metabolic abnormalities occur in DKA? met acidosis, hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia
Where does intraventricular hemorrhage occur in a premature infant? germinal matrix (generates neurons and glial during development); highly cellular and vascular structure
What enzymatic modification allows anchoring to the plasma membrane? palmitoylation incr hydrophobicity
What explains the different presentations of Duchenne's and Becker's MD although they both have a mutation in dystrophin gene? allelic heterogeneity - Duchenne's is complete loss while Becker's is structurally abnormal
What is the defect in Bruton's Agammaglobulinemia? defective tyrosine kinase gene - no B cell maturation
What are the signal peptides that designate proteins for extrusion into the RER? N-terminal hydrophobic sequences 15-20 AA long; if absent, proteins accumulate in cytosol
What product from Sertoli cells is necessary to maintain the high local concentration of testosterone necessary for nl sperm production and development? ABP
What are the functions of platelet activating factor? phospholipid inflammatory mediator that causes severe bronchoconstriction, vasoconstriction, and plt aggregation w/ microthrombus formation
What is the most common defect in beta-oxidation of FA? medium chain acyl coA dehydrogenase; sx: n/v and hypoglycemia after prolonged fasting, low ketone levels
Where do Poxviruses replicate? cytosol using multiple virally-encoded enzymes
What causes conduction aphasia? lesion in arcuate fasciculus in the insula
What aids in cell differentiation? transcription factors
What does a mutation in homeobox gene result in? Hand-foot-genital syndrome; clinodactyly, shortened thumbs and great toes, small feet,urinary tract abnormailites (bicornuate uterus, hypospadias)
What is Waardenburg syndrome? Pax-3 mutation; heterochroma irides, poliosis, dystopia canthorum, deafness
What happens during cooling step of PCR? primer hybridization (binds to ssDNA)
What is the most common location for acoustic schwannoma? pontocerebellar angle
What is the most common location for a meningioma? lateral hemispheric fissure and parasagittal aspect of brain convexity
What are the CSF characteristics of Bacterial meningitis? low glucose, high protein, neutrophilic predominance
Where is the majority of total frictional airway resistance localized? medium and small sized bronchioles > 2 mm diameter
What do auer rods stain (+) for? myeloperoxidase
When is Cidofovir used? HSV/VZV when strains lack thymidine kinase; it is a monophosphate that only needs activation by host phosphorylases
What is the most likely cause of acute hemorrhagic cystitis in children? adenovirus serotype 11 and 12
What cellular changes occur in the axonal reaction? enlarged rounded cell body w/ peripherally located nuclei and dispersed Nissl substance to periphery of cells
What is Rituximab? monoclonal Ab directed against CD20 Ag; used to tx lymphomas
What is a side effect of Trazodone, a highly sedating antidepressant? priapism
In the lungs, what is released from Hgb? protons
What is responsible for Ca efflux prior to myocyte relaxation? Ca ATPase and Na/Ca exchanger
What is the formula for F on a plasma conc vs time curve? AUC oral x IV dose/ AUC IV x oral dose
What bacteria contains polar granules that stain deeply w/ aniline dyes? C. diptheriae
What is used to screen for neural tube defects? acetylcholinesterase and AFP
What is defective in hyperIgM syndrome? CD40L of T helper cells
What is the most common benign tumor of the liver? cavernous hemangioma; blood-filled vascular spaces of variable size lined by a single epithelial cell later
What is the path of the great saphenous vein? medial malleolus --> medial leg --> drains into femoral vein just below pubic tubercle
What is the formula for attributable risk percentage? ARP = (RR - 1)/RR
What causes hemorrhagic cystitis during therapy w/ Cyclophosphamide? urinary excretion of toxic metabolite acrolein (prevented w/ Mesna, hydration)
What can cause SCID? defective IL-2 receptor, failure to synthesize MHCII, ADA deficiency
When does the adult kidney form? 5-6th wk gestation from the ureteric bud (derived from the mesonephric duct and the metaneprhic mesoderm)
What are the clinical findings of glucagonoma? necrolytic migratory erythema (elevated erythematous rash in groin), hyperglycemia, stomatitis, cheilosis, abdominal pain
What is Eisenmenger syndrome? late-onset reversal of L-->R shunt due to pulmonary vascular sclerosis resulting from chronic pulmonary HTN (laminated hypertrophy from incr blood flow)
Where are the very long chain fatty acids metabolized? peroxisomes
What is Zellweger syndrome? disease of peroxisomes, unable to properly form myelin; sx: hypotonia and seizures
What are the common muscle biopsy findings of hypothyroidism? pale muscle fibers, decr striations, deposition of mucinous material
What is the formula for odds ration? ad/bc (create 2x2)
What is pure red cell aplasia? marrow failure characterized by marked hypoplasia of marrow erythroid elements and nl granulopoiesis and thrombopoiesis; associated w/ thymoma and B19 infection
What are Pick bodies? cytoplasmic inclusions of microtubule-associated protein tau
Created by: ash0403



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