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QuestionAnswer
What is the MOA of Milrinone? (-) cardiac PDE type 3; adverse effects: hypotension and thrombocytopenia
What other cardiac rx can Quinidine cause a reaction with? Digitoxin toxicity
What are the side effects of Disopyramide? long half-life, anticholinergic sx
What are the clinical findings of Proprionic Acidemia? poor feeding, vomiting, hypotonia, lethargy, dehydration, and AG acidosis
Metabolism of what AA contribute to Proprionic Acidemia? Val, Ile, Thr, Met
What happens to the aorta with age? age-related decr in aortic compliance leads to isolated systolic hypertension
In seminal vesicles and urine, what is the purpose of sorbitol dehydrogenase? sorbitol --> fructose
What types of UV rays do zinc compounds block? UVAI, UVAII, UVB
What type of toxicity can Na nitroprusside cause? CN and thiocyanate; minimize by giving Na thiosulfate or hydroxycobalmin
What factor causes gingival hyperplasia with phenytoin use? incr PDGF
What is recombination (viruses)? exchange of genetic information b/w 2 virus strains w/ nonfragmented DNA genomes; 2 defective viruses can create 1 cytopathic wild type genome virus
What are the clinical signs of a thalamic stroke? total sensory loss on contralateral side of the body
What causes lacunar infarctions in the brain? small vessel lipohyalinosis and atherosclerosis in deep penetrating vessels supplying basal ganglia
What is the dx test for cystinuria? Na cyanide nitroprusside test (detects cysteine SH groups)
Which anti-lipid drugs can precipitate gall stones? Bile-acid binding resins (cholestyramine) and fibrates
What rx can cause seizures? buproprion, isoniazid, imipenem
What is the most common site of osteomyelitis? long bone metaphysis
How is an incr ejection fraction represented on ventricular PV loop? widening of graph (to the left)
What is different about the capsule of H. flu type b? ribose rather than hexose
What are the microscopic findings of an invasive mole? hydropic villi and proliferated trophoblast
What are the microscopic findings of Choriocarcinoma? atypical trophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast w/ hemorrhage and necrosis
What contributes to the permissive effects on cortisol of NE/EPI? upregulation of alpha1 receptors on arterioles
What are the microscopic findings of Mucomycosis? broad, nonseptate hyphae w/ right angle branching
What are the clinical findings of hydrocephalus? macrocephaly, poor feeding, muscle hypertonicity, hyperreflexia
What is Wednig-Hoffman disease? spinal muscular atrophy type I; lower extremity hyporeflexia, flaccid quadriplegia
What is used for acid fast staining? aniline dye (carbolfuchsin) and decolorizing with alcohol
What is retrolental fibroplasia? retinopathy of the newborn, due to O2 supplementation
Where are the parietal and chief cells oriented in the gastric glands? superficial - oxyntic parietal cells deep - small, basophilic granular chief cells
What type of bleeding d/o occurs in uremia? qualitative plt d/o w/ nl plt ct
What does her2/neu code for? transmembrane protein w/ intracellular tyrosine kinase activity
What is the role of thymic epithelial cells in T lymphocyte selection? they express MHC Ag on surface and interact w/ the TCR on the immature thymocytes, if they bind, thymocytes get (+) signal
What drugs can cause "coronary steal"? adenosine and dipyridamole - selective vasodilators of coronary vessels; can cause redistribution of blood through coronary microvessels or arterioles, possibly reversing collateral blood flow, may only dilate vessels in non-ischemic areas
What disease results from deficiency of CD55 and CD59 on RBCs? Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
Why aren't Chlamydia and Ureaplasma affected by pens or cephs? no cell wall peptidoglycan
What is tumor lysis syndrome? occurs when tumors w/ high cell turnover are tx; K, P, and uric acid released; uric acid can precipitate in acidic pH of DT and CD; prevent by alkalinization of urine and hydration
What is the pathogenesis of lactic acidosis? In septic shock, tissue hypoxia results in impaired ox phos and shunting of pyruvate to lactate following glycolysis
What is Cladribine? purine analog that achieves high intracellular concentrations b/c it is resistant to degradation by adenosine deaminases; DOC for hairy cell leukemia
What is lyonization one X chromosome is nl deactivated forming condensed heterochromatin (Barr body) where heavily methylated DNA is transcriptionally inactive
What are the clinical sx of theophylline toxicity? abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, arrhythmias, seizures*most common cause of death
How do you reverse theophylline toxicity? beta blocker for arrhythmias, BDZs for seizures
What are the side effects of the DOC for trigeminal neuralgia? aplastic anemia, also a CYP450 inducer (carbamazepine)
In HIV-1, what do env mutations do? enable escape from host neutralizing Ab
What are the clinical findings of portal vein thrombosis? portal HTN, splenomegaly, ascites, varicosities, NO changes to liver parenchyma
What is the histologic finding of mitochondrial myopathy? blotch, "ragged" red muscle fibers on Gomori trichrome stain
What is the most common cause of coronary sinus dilation? incr right-sided heart pressure secondary to pulmonary artery HTN
How do fibrates precipitate gall stone formation? 7-alpha hydroxylase decr solubilization of cholesterol --> bile acids
How can HAV be destroyed? water chlorination, formalin, UV irradiation, boiling to 85 C for 1 min
What causes lacunar infarcts? HTN changes in arterioles, leakage of plasma proteins through the endothelium and incr production of EMA and changes in arteriolar wall
What types of cell markers are cells of small cell CA usually (+) for? neuron specific enolase, chromogranin, synaptophysin
What virus is responsible for cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and Koplik's spots? Rubeola (measles virus), paramyxovirus family, enveloped ssRNA neg sense, nonsegmented
What is absent in LAD? CD18; recurrent skin infections w/o pus, delayed separation of umbilicus
What causes SSPE? certain types of measles that are missing an antigen (M protein); retained virus causes inflammation, demyelination, and gliosis
How does the liver uptake and secrete bilirbuin? uptake is passive; secretion is active; defective secretion = unconj bilirubin in urine
What is HCV envelope glycoprotein prone to frequent mutations? RNA polymerase has no 3' to 5' exonuclease activity
What are the histologic findings of osteopetrosis? persistence of primary, unmineralized spongiosa in the medullary canals
What is the best drug for postprandial hyperglycemia? lispro or aspart (peak in 30 to 90 mins)
What causes the rapid recovery from thiopental? redistribution t/o body (sk muscle and adipose tissue) NOT metabolism
What is used to prevent severe vasospasm post-SAH? nimodipine (CCB)
What are the clinical findings of infantile beriberi? fulminant cardiac syndrome w/ cardiomegaly, tachycardia, cyanosis, dyspnea, and vomiting
What limits the toxicity of Cisplatin? aggressive hydration and Amifostine
What prevents cardiotoxicity w/ Doxorubicin? Dexrazoxane, Fe-chelating agent
What are some important adverse effects of colchicine? nausea, abd pain, diarrhea
What causes myocardial hibernation? repetitive ischemia or persistent hypoperfusion, reversible loss of contractile functioning; reversed w/ CADB or balloon angioplasty
What is myocardial stunning? brief ischemic episodes followed by reperfusion
What is the physiology of sound transmission? tympanic membrane --> ossicles --> oval window --> basilar membrane --> bending of hair cell cilia (organ of corti) against tectorial membrane --> acoustic n.
Created by: ash0403