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Brain Nuclei

WVSOM -- Combank/First Aid -- Brain Nucleus

QuestionAnswer
sounds medial geniculate nucleus
visual input and sends information to the visual cortex of the occipital loge lateral geniculate nucleus
Body sensation such as touch pressure, vibration and pain that is directed form teh dorsal column of the spinal cord Lateral part of the VPN
motor signals mostly from the basal ganglia and cerebellum and distributes them to the motor cortex of the frontal lobe ventral anterior nucleus
facial sensation is supplied by the trigeminal nerve and relays this information to the... Medial part of the VPN
Lesion of this structure may cause a patient to begin to shop life and make inappropriate comments in public frontal lobe
Lesion of this structure causes a patient to have slow writhing and twisting movements of her fingers and her hands basal ganglia
Lesion of this structure will cause a patient to become dis-inhibited and act on increased sexual urges Amygdala
Confusion, ataxia, opthalmoplegia as well as memory loss and personaltiy changes mammillary bodies (Wernicke-Korsakoff)
hemiballismus of the contralateral arm subthalamic nucleus
Derives all the structures that contain the thalamus diencephalon
derives the cerebellum and pons metencephalon
gives rise to the midbrain mesencephalon
gives rise to the cerebral hemispheres and basal ganglia telencephalon
Gives rise to the medulla myelencephalon
Impingement of what nerves occurs due to a mass in the cavernous sinus? III, IV and V1
Lesion to what area of the brain results in difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, anda uvula that deviates the right with a diminished gag reflex Lateral medulla (CN IX, X)
Personality changes, disinhibited behavior and poor judgement frontal lobe injury
Challenges with language and hearing temporal lobe injury
Lose in basic function hypothalmic injury
Contra lateral visual field defects Occipital lobe injury
Hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior Amygdala Lesion (Kluver-bucy syndrome)
Disinhibition and deficits in concentration, orientation and judgment; may have reemergence of primitive reflexes Frontal Lobe Lesion
Spatial neglect syndrome (agnosia of the contralateral side of the world) Right parietal lobe lesion
reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness Reticular activating system (midbrain)(e.g., coma)
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome mammillary bodies
Confusion ophthalmoplegia, ataxia Wernicke syndrome
memory loss, confabulation, personality change Korsakoff Syndrome
tremor at rest, chorea, or athertosis basal ganglia
intention tremor, limb ataxia cerebellar hemisphere lesion. Will fall toward side of lesion
truncal ataxia, dysarthria cerebella vermis lesion
contralateral hemiballismus subthalamic nucleus
antegrade amnesia -- inability to make new memories hippocampus
eyes look away from side of lesion paramedian pontine reticular formation
eyes look toward lesion frontal eye fields
Contralateral hemiparesis (lower extremities), medial lemniscus (decreased contralateral proprioception), ipsilateral paralysis of hypoglossal nerve Medial medullary syndrome (Anterior Spinal Artery)
contralateral loss of pain and temperature, ipsilateral dysphagia, hoarseness, decreased gag, vertigo, diplopia, nystagmus, vomiting, ipsilateral horner's, ipsilateral facial pain, temp, trigeminal nucleus, ipsilateral ataxia PICA; Lateral medullary syndrome
Artery with Medial medullary syndrome Anterior Spinal Artery
Artery with Lateral medullary syndrome PICA
Ipsilateral facial paralysis, ipsilateral cohlear nucleus, vestibular (nystagmus),ipsilateral facial pain and temperature, ipsilateral dystaxia AICA; lateral inferior pontine syndrome
contralateral homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing; supplies occipital cortex Posterior cerebral artery
contralateral face and arm paralysis and sensory loss, aphasia (dominant sphere), left-sided neglect Middle cerebral artery
supplies medial surface of brain, leg-foot area of motor and sensory cortices anterior cerebral artery
most common site of circle of willis aneurysm; lesions may cause visual field defects anterior communicating artery
common area of aneurysm; causes CN III palsy Posterior communicating artery
"arteries of stroke"; infarct of teh posterior limb of the internal capsule causes pure motor hemiparesis Lateral striate
Supply internal capusule, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus lateral striate (division of middle cerebral artery)
Watershed zones anterior cerebral/middle cerebral, posterior cerebral/middle cerebral
What gets damaged in severe hypotension watershed zones
Upper leg/upper arm weakness, defects in higher-order visual processing Watershed zones due to severe hypotension
Hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior Amygdala Lesion (Kluver-bucy syndrome)
Disinhibition and deficits in concentration, orientation and judgment; may have reemergence of primitive reflexes Frontal Lobe Lesion
Spatial neglect syndrome (agnosia of the contralateral side of the world) Right parietal lobe lesion
reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness Reticular activating system (midbrain)(e.g., coma)
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome mammillary bodies
Confusion ophthalmoplegia, ataxia Wernicke syndrome
memory loss, confabulation, personality change Korsakoff Syndrome
tremor at rest, chorea, or athertosis basal ganglia
intention tremor, limb ataxia cerebellar hemisphere lesion. Will fall toward side of lesion
truncal ataxia, dysarthria cerebella vermis lesion
contralateral hemiballismus subthalamic nucleus
antegrade amnesia -- inability to make new memories hippocampus
eyes look away from side of lesion paramedian pontine reticular formation
eyes look toward lesion frontal eye fields
Contralateral hemiparesis (lower extremities), medial lemniscus (decreased contralateral proprioception), ipsilateral paralysis of hypoglossal nerve Medial medullary syndrome (Anterior Spinal Artery)
contralateral loss of pain and temperature, ipsilateral dysphagia, hoarseness, decreased gag, vertigo, diplopia, nystagmus, vomiting, ipsilateral horner's, ipsilateral facial pain, temp, trigeminal nucleus, ipsilateral ataxia PICA; Lateral medullary syndrome
Artery with Medial medullary syndrome Anterior Spinal Artery
Artery with Lateral medullary syndrome PICA
Ipsilateral facial paralysis, ipsilateral cohlear nucleus, vestibular (nystagmus),ipsilateral facial pain and temperature, ipsilateral dystaxia AICA; lateral inferior pontine syndrome
contralateral homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing; supplies occipital cortex Posterior cerebral artery
contralateral face and arm paralysis and sensory loss, aphasia (dominant sphere), left-sided neglect Middle cerebral artery
supplies medial surface of brain, leg-foot area of motor and sensory cortices anterior cerebral artery
most common site of circle of willis aneurysm; lesions may cause visual field defects anterior communicating artery
common area of aneurysm; causes CN III palsy Posterior communicating artery
"arteries of stroke"; infarct of teh posterior limb of the internal capsule causes pure motor hemiparesis Lateral striate
Supply internal capusule, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus lateral striate (division of middle cerebral artery)
Watershed zones anterior cerebral/middle cerebral, posterior cerebral/middle cerebral
What gets damaged in severe hypotension watershed zones
Upper leg/upper arm weakness, defects in higher-order visual processing Watershed zones due to severe hypotension
Nonfluent aphasia with intact comprehension. Broca's aphasia
Artery in Lateral inferior pontine syndrome AICA
Leasion to inferior frontal gyrus broca's area
fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension Wernicke's
superior temporal gyrus lesion wernickes area
Nonfluent aphasia with impaired comprehension. Global aphasia (both broca and wernicke)
Poor reptition but fluent speech, intact comprehension. conduction aphasia
Arcuate fasciulus lesion conduction aphasia (connects Broca and Wernicke)
Frontal Lobe next to Sylvian fissue Broca's area
Temporal Lobe next to Sylvian fissure Wernicke's area
LMN only due to destruction of anterior horns; flaccid paralysis Poliomyelitis
Mostly white matter of cervical region. scanning speech, intention tremor, nystagmus MS
Combined upper and lower motor neuron deficits with no sensory deficit ALS
Spare dorsal columns. everything else affected complete occulsion to anterior spinal artery
degeneration of dorsal roots; impaired proprioception, locomotor ataxia tabes dorsalis
damages anterior white commissureof spinothalamic tract resulting in bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation seen in arnold-chiari II Syringomyelia
demyelination of dorsal columns and lateral corticospinal tracts and spinocerebellar tracts; ataxic gait, hyperreflexia, impaired positona nd vibration sense Vitamin B12 and Vitamin E defeiciency known as Friedreich's Ataxia
Created by: tjamrose