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STHS Civics Flash

2010 Civics Final Exam--Denbrock

What is a dictatorship? The rule by one person by force or violence.
What is an oligarchy? Rule by a few select ones.
What is a democracy? Rule by many. Government created by social contract. People have much input.
What is a government established to provide? To provide services that the individual cannot provide for themselves.
What are the purposes of government? 1. provide for and control economic system. 2. provide national security and common defense; 3. provide for public services; 4. maintain social order
Why do dictatorships come to power? Usually when existing governments were unable to solve political and economic problems.
What is the FORCE THEORY? One person or group takes control over an area.
Which amendment established the separation of church and state? First Amendment
The phrase "a governments of laws, not of men" has been used to express the idea that? All laws should apply equally to all persons.
Define the economic system: CAPITALISM: A free market economy; an economic system in which private citizens own and use the factors of production in order to generate profits.
What were the political views of philosophers, John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau? Men are born free and equal in rights. It is the duty of every government to preserve and to protect these natural inalienable rights.
Whose philosophical view are reflected in our separation of powers in the Constitution? Baron de Montesquieu of France
The House of Burgesses and the New England town meetings during colonial time were examples of what? Steps in the growth of representative democracy.
Where does the government get its authority? The people
What best describes governmental power under the Articles of Confederation and the Constituition? The power of the states greatly exceeded the power of the central government in the ARTICLES. Under the Constitution, the central government is the center of power and the states have lesser power.
How did the US Constitution differ from the Articles of Confederation? The US Constitution created a national government having three branches and the national government had much more power.
What was the 3/5 Compromise? For population purposes, each slaves would count as 3/5 of a slave, and for tax purposes the same.
What did the Virginia Plan do? It was based on population with more people where more people should have more representation.
Describe the characteristics of a democracy. Rule by the people; an appointed ruler by the people;people have right to vote; people have a say in what happens in the government.
In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson was most influenced by John Locke's idea of what? Natural rights
What principle grants the President the authority to appoint federal judges? Separation of powers
If the Supreme Court rules a law unconstitutional, under which principle would the Court be exercising its authority? Judicial review
Which constitutional principle divides power between national and state governments? federalism
What is the difference between the FEDERALISTS and ANTI-FEDERALISTS? FEDERALISTS: believe in government that divides powers of government between the national and state governments;favored the Constitution; ANTI-FEDERALISTS: Did not favor the Constitution; Took important powers from the states; Wanted a Bill of Rights--p
What is the Bill of Rights? What is the main purpose of the Bill of Rights? The Bill of Rights are the first 10 amendments to the Constitution Ensure people's rights, so that the government does not abuse their rights. Justice before the law.
What is the major reason why the Constituion allows Supreme Court justices to be appointed for life terms? Presidents view judicial appointments as a means of carrying on their political ideas after they have left the White House. They have made it a political issue rather than it is a person being able to do the job.
If the President vetoes a bill, how can the bill still become a law? Passed again by 2/3 of both Houses of Congress
The Bill of Rights of the Constitution has several provisions that protect the individual's right to have what? Justice before the law
What is the main reason the Constitution places no time limit on the terms of the Supreme Court justices? Justices should be free of political or economic pressures that might influence their decisions
The significance of the Supreme Court case: Marbury v. Madison is the decision that: Established the power of judicial review
What describes the status of individual righrts in US society? Amendments and Supreme Court decisions have expanded individual rights.
After the Civil War, the poll tax, literacy tax, and grandfather clause were used to ensure what? The voting rights of most former slaves were denied.
In the Supreme Court case: Brown v. Topeka Board of Education the Court ruled what? School segregation is unconstitutional
The Constitution on the US has survived primarily because? The people have continued to support its ideals.
What do political parties do? 1. Conduct government; 2.Determine public policy; 3.nominate candidates for office; 4.determine public policy
Why did political parties begin to form in the US? Communist, Socialist, Totalitarian
What do political parties do?
There has been a trend that many Americans consider a threat to the US political process is: The increasing influence of political action committees and lobbyists
How are political parties, modern-day campaigns, and interest groups similar? They are parts of the "unwritten" Constitution.
Name an example of the presidential power of Commander-in-Chief. Ordering American troops into a foreign country.
What is accurate about the impeachment trials of Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton? Senate failed to convict either President in the trial of impeachment.
What is a common characteristic of third political parties in the US? The tend to focus on one person or one issue.
How can the US Constitution be changed? By an amendment
What does the President have the authority to do? Grant pardons
How can Presidents most directly influence future decisions of the US Supreme Court? By appointing new Supreme Court justices with 2/3 Senate approval
Why is the US Constitution call the "supreme law of the land"? It is the basis for all other laws.
What are the qualifications for a person to become President? 35 years old; natural born citizen; lived in the country for 14 years
What is the major shortcoming of the Electoral College? A candidate can win the popular vote but lose the Presidency due to the votes in the Electoral College.
What is major purpose of lobbying? To influence legislation on behalf of special interest groups.
What is the Evolutionary Theory? the origin of the state developed from the family unit
What is the divine right theory? Ruler's power came from God
Define the economic system:SOCIALISM an economic system in which the government owns some factors of production and has a role in determining what and how goods are produced.
Define the economic system: COMMUNISM an economic and political system in which factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state; a classless society in which everyone works for the common good.
What did the New Jersey Plan propose at the Constitutional Convention? NEW JERSEY PLAN (small state plan):unicameral legislature; Congress would impose taxes and regulate trade; Executive branch would be elected by Congress; Judicial branch appointed by the executive branch.
Why was the Preamble to the Constitution written? To state the goals of our government.
Define this principle of the Constitution: FEDERALISM. FEDERALISM:system in which power is divided between the national and state governments.
Define this principle of the Constitution: POPULAR SOVREIGNTY. POPULAR SOVREIGNTY: rule by the people
Define this principle of the Constitution: JUDICIAL REVIEW. JUDICIAL REVIEW: power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, and national governments unconstitutional.
Define this principle of the Constitution: Limited Government. LIMITED GOVERNMENT: system in which the power of the government is limited; not absolute.
What is a third party? How have third parties influenced American politics? THIRD PARTY--Minor party presenting single idea or issue; win fewer votes than either majority parties; INFLUENCE-May win enough votes to influence, but not win an election. May cause candidates to change views on subjects.
One criticism of modern polticis is that the US seems to have only a one-party political system. What is meant by this criticism? During election time, candidates tend to move their political views toward the middle of the political spectrum. It seems like both candidates have similar political views.
What role does the media play in political campaigns? Provides information about the candidates, views, actions, etc. Forces candidates to offer simplistic answers to complex questions.
What is the major criticism of the electoral college system for electing the President of the US? The winner-take-all system makes it possible for a candidate to lose the popular vote and win the electoral vote and still win the election.
Political parties, modern-day campaigns, judicial review and interest groups are major "unwritten" characteristics of the US Constitution. How did they become such a big part of our government? They have evolved over time. Gradually, over time these things have taken a place in government and society. THey are not written in the Constitution.
DEFINE the following political groups. INTEREST GROUPS:organizations that carry out programs to influence public opinion, government policies, decisions. POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEE(PAC):interest group that raises money from their members and contribute it to political parties and candidates.
Why is the increasing influenc of lobbyists and political action committees (PACs) considered such a threat to the US political process? PACS reflect the need of special interest groups. They contribute to both candidates in a political race to get a person in office. They want familiar faces in office--not experienced people. It has a great influence on levels of government. Shape what lo
IDENTIFY the major power of each of the 3 branches of the government. Using the legislative as an example, discuss how the system of checks and balances is applied in our government. EXECUTIVE BRANCH: enforces the laws. LEGISLATIVE BRANCH: Makes the laws. JUDICIAL BRANCH: Interpret the laws. USE your "Checks and Balances sheets and "Branches of Government Sheet to help you.
Discuss the following influences on the Presidential election process. PARTY PLATFORMS:statement of principles,beliefs, positions on vital issues. May try to divide party and oppose issues. VOTER APATHY: lack of caring can cause decline of political views; decline of government power; people not caring about world affairs,
CONTINUATION OF THE INFLUENCES ON PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION PROCESS-PT. 2 ROLE OF THE MEDIA: influences people's views by TV, internet, newspaper, word of mouth, radio with candidates, ads, appearances, etc. ELECTORAL COLLEGE: certain number of electoral votes determine winner even though other candidate may have more politica
Why is the Constitution called the "supreme law of the land"? It is the basis of all other laws.
What are the 3 qualifications of running for President? 35 years old; 14 years living in the country; born in the United States.
DEFINE THE 7 ROLES OF THE PRESIDENT (WILL CONTINUE DOWN): CHIEF LEGISLATOR: propose legislation and give to legislators Chief Executive:makes sure the laws are carried out Chief Diplomat: directs foreign policy; makes treaties; visits foreign countries CHIEF GUARDIAN OF THE ECONOMY: duty to prepare and superv
SEE ABOVE QUESTIONS ON ROLES CHIEF OF STATE:represents US and performs ceremonial duties COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF:head of military armed forces; power to make war; work on military strategy CHIEF OF PARTY: give speeches for party; raises money for party; appoints members of party to gove
What decision did the Senate hand down in the impeachment trials of President Andrew Johnson and President Bill Clinton? Senate failed to convict either president in the trial of impeachment.
What aspect of a country is most directly influenced by its political system? Economic
What are the natural rights defined in the Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson (got these from John Locke)? Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
What is the difference between the Republicans and Democrats? Give examples where each party stands on some major issues. (SEE ATTACHED SHEET)
Put these events in chronological order: Election Day, Electoral College meets; National Party primaries; Inauguration Day National Party primaries, Election Day, Electoral College meets, Inauguration Day
In recent years, what trend do many Americans consider a threat to the US political process and voting process turnout? Increasing influence of lobbying and media in politics
Lobbying groups such as NRA and NEA can influence government decision because they do what? Work to elect legislators who support their views.
What is the main issue of the Graham v. Florida case? Whether sentencing juveniles to life sentences without parole for non-homicide offenses is constitutional.
What was the Supreme Court's ruling the Graham v. Florida case? Constitution prohibits imposition of a life without parole sentence on a juvenile offender who did not commit homicide.
How did the Graham v. Florida case impact the rights of the criminal? the state? Criminal: criminal's rights were expanded; juveniles could now have parole for non-homicidal offenses. STATE: states' rights were lessened. They were no longer able to impose a life sentence on a juvenile for a non-homicidal offense.
What was the main issue of the Texas v. Johnson case? Burning of the American flag was constituionally protected by "symbolic" speech.
What was the Supreme Court's ruling in the Texas v. Johnson case? A statute that criminalizes the desecration of the American flag violates the First Amendment.
How did the Texas v. Johnson case influence the rights of states? How did this case impact the rights of individual citizens? STATES: Expands the states' first amendment rights that burning of the flag is not symbolic speech-freedom of speech. CITIZENS: first amendment rights of freedom of speech lessened--burning of flag does not represent symbolic speech and is unconstitutiona
What is the main issue of the Whren v. US case? Any traffic offense committed by a driver is a legitimate legal basis for a stop.
What was the Supreme Court's ruling in the Whren v. US? Any traffic offense committed by a driver is a legitimate basis for a traffic stop--it is constitutional.
How did the Whren v. US case influence the ability of states to conduct searches? How did this case impact the rights of criminal defendants? RIGHTS OF STATES: Expanded rights of states to search and seize on traffic stops due to probable cause. RIGHTS OF CRIMINAL DEFENDANTS: Lessened rights of possible criminal defendants against 4th amendment of search and seizure based upon probable cause.
What was the main issue of the New Jersey v. TLO case? Involved search and seizure of high school student for contraband after she was caught smoking. Possible violation of 4th amendment.
What was the Supreme Court's ruling in the New Jersey v. TLO case? 4th Amendment's prohibition on unreasonable searches and seizures applies to searches by public school officials, and search of a student's purse was reasonable.
How did the Tinker v. Des Moines case influence the right of students and school officials? STUDENTS: Rights of students with regard to search and seizure without a warrant were lessened. SCHOOL OFFICIALS: Rights to search and seizure without a warrant appear to be broadened without respect to the academic community.
What was the main issue in Gregg v. Georgia? To determine whether capital punishment and the death penalty were constitutional.
What was the Supreme Court's ruling in the Gregg v. Georgia case? The 2-stage process of a trial to decide guilt and a separate hearing to determine appropriate sentence is constitutional.
How did the Gregg v. Georgia case the ability of the states to use the death penalty? How did this case impact the rights of criminal defendants? RIGHTS OF STATES: Gave the states more freedom and leeway to use a 2-way process to determine guilt and innocence and appropriate sentence. However, in later years, some of these freedoms dealing with age and the death sentence have taken away some of the
How did the Gregg v. Georgia case affect rights of criminal defendants? Immediately, it took away some of the defendants' rights. In years to come, some of the rights have been given back to juveniles, and the death penalty has been reconsidered in many cases.
What was the main issue of the Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier case? 1st amendment--freedom of the press. National media is affected. School newspapers seeking protection under the 1st amendment freedom of the press. Do public administrators have the right to censor school sponsored activities?
How did the Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeir case influence the rights of students and school officials. RIGHTS OF STUDENTS: Lessened rights of students and their ability to use the 1st amendment and freedom of the press to express their ideas. SCHOOL OFFICIALS: Broadened administrators' rights to censor speech that promotes "conduct inconsistent with the sh
Why is the Constitution called the "supreme law of the land"? It is the basis of all laws. All laws derive from the Constitution.
Created by: khelms



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