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What depends on how a virus will bind to certain cells? viral envelope glycoprotein
What is the pathogenesis of serum sickness? deposition of circulating complement-fixing immune complexes and vasculitis; sx: fever, arthralgias, pruritic skin rash, low C3
What is the enzyme deficiency in Fabry's disease? Sx? alpha-galactoside A, accumulation of globoside ceramide trihexoside; sx: hypohidrosis, angiokeratomas, acroparesthesias, renal failure
What is the function of HPV viral proteins E6 and E7? Integrate into genome, bind, and inactivate gene products of p53 and Rb
How much energy is released in the oxidation of 1 g of fat? 9 kcal
How much energy is released in the oxidation of 1 g of carbohydrate? protein? 4 kcal for both
In Kwashiorkor, what causes the fatty liver? no apolipoproteins to assemble and secrete VLDLs
Where in the liver does 25-OH of cholecalciferol occur? CYP450 system (but induction actually enhances METABOLISM and leads to deficiency)
What effect does vit E toxicity have on coagulation? decreased synthesis of vitK dependent procoagulation factors
What is the best vitamin to neutralize hydroxyl free radicals? vit C
What is the only bile acid that is not reabsorbed in the terminal ileum? lithocholic acid - may have role in colorectal cancer
What oncogene is associated with small cell carcinoma of the lung? L-myc (transcription factor)
What happens to the spinal cord in Friedrich Ataxia? DRG degenerate, trans-synaptic degeneration in the ipsilateral gracile and cuneate nuclei
Why is Acebutolol contraindicated in a pt with angina? has intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and acts as a partial agonist; maintains high O2 consumption
What is the formula for appropriate compensation for metabolic acidosis? PCO2 = 1.5 (HCO3) + 8 +/- 2
What is the appropriate compensation for Respiratory acidosis? ACUTE: 1 HCO3 for every 10 PCO2 increase; CHRONIC: 4 HCO3 for every 10 PCO2 increase
What is the appropriate compensation for Respiratory alkalosis? ACUTE: 2 HCO3 for every 10 PCO2 decrease; CHRONIC: 5 HCO3 for every 10 PCO2 decrease
What is the appropriate compensation for metabolic alkalosis? 0.7 PCO2 for every 1 HCO3 increase
What ID is associated with MPGN Type I? HBV
What are the three stages of acute tubular necrosis? initiating event, maintenance (oliguric), recovery (re-epithelialization)
In what stage of ATN do most patients die? why? oliguric; hyperkalemia causes arrhythmias
What are some clinical findings of uremia? incr BUN/Cr, nausea, anorexia, pericarditis, asterixis, encephalopathy, plt dysfunction
What is the pathogenesis of osteitis fibrosis cystic? hypo vit D, 2ndary HPT, incr bone resorption leads to cystic lesions that may hemorrhage (brown tumors)
Name some drugs that are implicated in sulfa allergy. Acetazoloamide, Sulfonamides, Furosemide, HCTZ, sulfasalazine
Why should ACE-I be avoided in a pt with bilateral renal artery stenosis? prevent constriction of efferent arterioles and will decrease GFR
What are some functions of ANP? suppresses ADH release, inhibits ATII effect on thirst and aldosterone, vasodilates peripheral resistance vessels, direct inhibition of Na reabsorption in kidneys, suppression of renin release
Why are pts with Bartter's syndrome normotensive even though renin is increased? hypokalemia stimulates prostaglandin synthesis which causes hyperplasia of JG apparatus but also vasodialtes arterioles
How is demeclocycline used to tx a paraneoplastic syndrome of small cell lung cancer? inhibits effect of ADH on collecting tubules
What is the chi-square test used for? to compare differences between two proportions or percentages
What is the t-test used for? to compare differences between two means
Which TB drug causes red urine and staining of contact lenses? Rifampin
What is the course of the ureters as they enter the true pelvis? lateral to internal iliac vessels, medial to gonadal vessels, pass over external iliac vessles, pass under uterine vessels (water under bridge)
Which viruses are capable of genetic reassortment? RNA segmented viruses (reovirus, orthomxyovirus, arenavirus, bunyavirus)
What does HDV need before it can infect hepatocytes? HBsAg viral coat
What is the formula for Confidence Interval? CI = Mean+/-1.96SD/sq rt (n)
What is the major virulence factor for S. pyogenes? Protein M; inhibits phagocytosis and complement activation, mediates bacterial adherence
What are the morphologic findings of Pilocytic astrocytoma? cystic tumor of spindle cells w/ hair-like glial processes; rosenthal fibers and granular eosinophlic bodies
What are the morphologic findings of Medulloblastoma? small poorly differentiated cells arranged as HW rosettes around blood vessels
Why does alkalosis cause muscle tetany? increased number of charges on albumin displace Ca from ionized fraction form to bound fraction form
What causes myxedema? increase in hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate (stimulated by T cell cytokines to be released from fibroblasts in Grave's disease)
What causes pulmonary edema in septic shock? neutrophil transmigration through pulmonary capillaries into alveoli
What is the best indicator of tissue hypoxia? decreased mixed venous O2 content; decreased blood flow through microcirculation causes increased O2 extraction from blood
What does a lesion in the ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei lead to? obesity and aggressive behavior
What is the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced steatosis? decr FFA oxidation, incr NADH production
What factors released from platelets stimulate recruitment and growth of smooth muscle cells? PDGF (mitogenic and chemotactic), TGF-beta (chemotactic)
What is the pathogenesis of a Zenker diverticulum? cricopharyngeal muscle dysfunction impairs relaxation, incr pressure in lumen causes mucosa to herniate at points of muscular weakness
What are some consequences of upregulation of PPAR-gamma by thiazolidinediones? incr adiponectin, incr fatty acid transport protein, incr insulin receptor substrate, incr GLUT-4
What is contained in Thayer Martin medium? What does it select for? Vancomycin - kill gram (+), colisitin and trim - kill gram (-), nystatin - kill fungal organisms; selects for N. gonorrhoeae
What is the pathogenesis of acute rejection? Host T cell sensitization against graft MHC antigens
Which type of lipoprotein deficiency confers no increased risk of atherosclerosis? Type I: lipoprotein lipase or ApoCII deficiency; causes acute pancreatitis
What connects osteocytes in adjacent haversian systems? canaliculi contain processes that communicate via gap junctions
What are the typical biochemical abnormalities seen in Addison's disease? hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypochloremia, metabolic acidosis
Define the satellite phenomenon that occurs when S. aureus and H. flu are grown on the same medium. S. aureus cleaves RBCs to produce hematin (X factor) and produce NAD (V factor); H. flu grows around colonies of S. aureus
Severe IgA deficiency predisposes the pt to which parasitic infection? Chronic giardiasis
What is the function of the D-xylose test? to differentiate b/w malabsorption due to pancreatic insufficiency or GI mucosal issue (D-xylose is a monosaccharide and does not require pancreatic enzymes)
What is the formula for cadiac output? SV*HR or O2 consumption/AV O2 difference
How does 2,3 BPG bind to Hgb? Binds in pocket formed by two beta chains that contains (+) charged residues such as His to bind to the (-) phosphate groups
What creates the alpha helix and beta pleated sheet secondary conformation of proteins? hydrogen bonds (1 every 4th AA in alpha, and b/w all resides of antiparallel strands in beta)
What is imparied in carnitine deficiency? beta oxidation of FFA (in mitochondria) and formation of ketone bodies
In what pathway is transketolase involved in? HMP shunt; pentose --> glyceraldehyde3P
Which GABA receptor is linked to a G protein? What drugs binds to it? B; Baclofen
What is the preferred prophylaxis of persons exposed to N. meningitidis? Rifampin
What are the clinical findings of Caudal Regression Syndrome? flaccid paralysis, urinary incontinence, dorsiflexed contractures of feet
How can encapsulated strains of S. pneumoniae acquire genetic material that codes for the capsule? transformation - take up free DNA from media
What is the classic clinical presentation of cardiac tamponade? hypotension, tachycardia, elevated venous pressure (JVD)
What vitamin can aid in the tx of homocystinuria? pyridoxine (vit B 6)
What are some of the clinical findings of homocystinuria? thromboembolic episodes, ectopia lentis, elongated limbs, arachnodactyly, scoliosis
What are the classic clinical findings of atheroembolic disease of the renal arteries? cyanic toe, incr Cr in an elderly pt following an invasive vascular procedure
What are the side effects of Foscarnet? it is an analog of pyrophosphate, so it chelates Ca and promoes Mg wasting
How are HIV envelope glycoproteins formed? env gene --> polypeptide product glycosylated to gp160 --> cleaved w/in ER and golgi --> gp120 and gp41
What is the formula for specificity? TN/(TN + FP)
What is the formula for sensitivity? TP/(TP + FN)
Created by: ash0403



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