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2010 bio review

bioogy reveiw for the 2010 sol test

6 steps of the scientific method (1) observation (2) hypothesis (3) experiment (4) collect data (5) conclusion (6) retest
what is the act of gathering information about a system or enviornment using one or more of the five senses? observation
what is information collected during an experiment? data
what is an "educated guess" or predictable solution to a problem? hypothesis
what are factors that change/can be measured in an experiment? variables
what is the variable that you change on perpose? independent variable
what is the variable that changes as a result of the IV? dependent variable
what is a level of IV used as a standard for comparison? control
what are things that are kept the same in the experiment? constants
in grphing what variable is recorded on the x axis? independent
in grphing what variable is recorded on the y axis? dependent
what happens in a direct relationship? both IV and DV either increase together or decrease together
what happens in an inverse relationship? the IV and the DV do different things (one increases and one decreases)
what molecules is what made of? 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen
how is a water molecule kept together? covalent bonds
what is a polar structure? a structure with a slightly positive side and a slightly negative side
is water polar? yes
what is the attraction between the positive end of one water molecule and the negative end of another water molecule? a hydrogen bond
True or False: Water has a low molecular heat which means that it takes a lot of energy to increase its temperature False it has a high moleculare heat
what is the universal solvent and why? water because it can dissolve substances to be more easily transported throughout an organism
what is it called when water molecules stick together? cohesion
what is it called when water molecules stick to other sustances? adhesion
what is it called when water molecules move up a stem using adhesion? capillary action
True or False: Carbohydrates are organic compounds True
what is the funtion of a carbohydrate? a source of energy
what is a monosaccharaide? on sugar (glucose)
what is a disaccharide? two sugars (sucrose, maltose, lactose)
what is a polysaccharide? many sugars (cellulose, starch, and glycogen)
what are non-polar and insoluable in water? lipids
what are lipids made of? three fatty acids and one glycerol molecule
what is a lipids function? to store energy
what is the function of a protein? to control the rate of reaction and regulate cell processes
what kind of proteins help speed up chemical reactions? catylists
what are proteins made of? amino acids
how are amino acids held together? peptide bonds
what is dipeptide? two amino acids
what is polypeptide three or more amino acids
what is nucleic acid made of? nucleotides
what does a nucleotide consist of? a phosphate, sugar, and nitrogen base
what are two types of nucleic acid? DNA and RNA
what stores genetic information? DNA
what is essential for protein synthesis? RNA
True or False: Enzymes are lipids. Flase, they are proteins
what increases the reaction by lowering the activatoin energy? enzymes
what forms temporary enzyme sustrate compleses? enzymes
what is not affected or changed by the reaction? enzymes
True or False: enzymes do not make reactions occur that would otherwise not occur at all. True
on the ph scale 6-0 is what? increasingly acidic
on the ph scale 7 is what? neutral
on the ph scale 8-14 is what? incresingly basic
what is the photosynthetic equation? 6CO2+6H2O----(with light)--->6O2+C6H12O6
what is the site of photosynthesis? chloroplasts
what are three things that effect the rate of photosynthesis? temperature, light intensity, and carbon dioxide consentration
what is the equation for cellular resperation? 6O2+C6H12O6--------->6CO2+6H2O+ATP
what is the site for cellular resperation? mitochondria
how are photosynthesis and cellular resparation a continuous cycle? ones output is the others input
what is the cell theory? (1) all livingthings are made of one or more cells (2) cells are the basic unit of structure and function for living things (3) all cells come from pre0existing cells
who observed the first cell from cork and coined the term "cell" Robert Hooke
who obsereced microscoic cells from pond water? Anton van Leewenhoek
who studied plant cells? Matthais Schleiden
who studied animal cells? Theodor Schwann
who concluded that all cells come from pre-existing cells? Rudolph Virchow
what lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles (ex: bacteria) prokaryotes
what has a true nucleus and organelles (ex: plants) eukaryotes
what is the command center of the cell where DNA is located? nucleus
what is a small organelle inside the nucleus that helps make ribosomes nucleolus
what are small organelles in the cytoplasm that make proteins? ribosomes
what is the transportation system of the cell? the endoplasmic reticulum
what is the packing and shipping center of the cell? the golgi apparatus
what contains digestive nezymes and breaks down a cells old parts and debris? lysosomes
what is the storage tank of a cell? vacuoles
what is the power center of the cell that produces ATP? mitochondria
what organelle does photosynthesis and contains chlorophyll? chloroplast
what assists in cell division? centrioles
what is the medium inside a cell in which organelles are suspended? cytoskeleton
what is the layer that surrounds the cell? cell membrane
what is composed of cellulose in plants and chitin in fungi cell wall
does passive transport require energy? no
passive transport is also known as what? diffusion
in passive transport substances move fromm what consentration to what concentration? high to low
what is a unique type of passice transport in which a membrane protien is used to shuttle ions and molecules across the membrane (still from high to low) facilitated diffusion
what is the special term applied to the movment of water molecules across the cell membrane (as a result of diffusion)? osmosis
what is water in is equal to water out isotonic
what is water moves into the cell quicker than out of the cell hypotonic
what is water moves out of the cell quicker than into the cell hypertonic
does active transport require energy? yes
in active transport substances move from what concentration to what concentration? low to high
what is taking materials into the cell by infolding? endocytosis
what are two forms of endocytosis? phagosytisis and pinocytosis
what is it called when the vacuole membrane fuses with the cell membrane forcing a substance out exocytosis
what are two types of active transport proteins? sodium-potassium pump and proton pump
how does bacteria reproduce? binary fission
what is a process in which eukayotic cells make an identical copy? mitosis
what are the stages of mitosis? prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis
in what stage of mitosis do chromosomes codense and become visible, the nuclear envelope disappears, and the centrioles begin to move away from each other? prophase
in what stage of mitosis do chromosomes line up in the center of the cell? metaphase
in what stage of mitosis do sister chromatids of each chromosome separate at the centromere and slowly move to opposite poles? anaphase
in what stage of mitosis doesthe nuclear membrane begin to form around each new set of chromosomes? telaphase
in what stage of mitosis doesthe cell pinch forming two daughter cells? cytokinesis
what is a process by which sexually reproducing organisms maintain the same number of chromosomes from generation to generation? meiosis
chromosomes exist in pairs called what? homologous chromosomes
True or False: All cells in the human body are haploid except sex cells which are diploid. False, all are diploid and sex cells are haploid
how many rounds of mitosis does meiosis require? two
how many cells are there at the end of meiosis? four
what is the study of heredity? genetics
who is the father of genetics who studied offspring of pea plants? Gregor Mendel
True or False: an allele can be homozygous or heterozygous. True
True or False: the recessive trait is blocked by the dominant trait. True
what does a capital letter represent in genetics? a dominant trait
what does a lowercase letter represent in genetics? a recessive trait
what is a genotype? the genetic makeup
what is a phenotype? the appearance
what is the same TT or tt (pure)? homozygous
what is defferant Tt hybrid? heterozygous
what is the first generation called? the P generation
what are the offspring of the P generation called? first fillial or F1 generation
what are the offspring of F1? F2
what is a table using letters to represent possible genotypes? Punnet Square
what studies two traits at the same time? a two-factor cross
what is blending (red and white flowers produce pink flowers) Incomplete Dominance
what is it when both traits are expressed together (ex: AB blood) Codominance
True or False: the DNA structure is a double helix or twisted ladder. True
who determined the double helix structure of DNA and made the first model or DNA? Watson and Crick
what is each strand of DNA made up of? repeating subunits called nucleotides
waht does each nucleotide consist of? a sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base
a nucleotide in DNA contains one of what four bases? adenine, thymine, cytosine,or guanine
which base binds with adenine? thymine
which base binds with cytosine? guanine
what is Chargoff's rule? base pairing
does DNA directly produce proteins? no
what is transcription? DNA to RNA
what is translation? RNA to protein
what are the molecules that carry copies of the instructions? messanger RNA
what are the molecules that form part of the ribosomes? ribosomal RNA
what are the molecules that brings each amino acid to the ribosome? transfer RNA
where is messenger RNA made and processed? cytoplasm
after being made, where does messenger RNA go? nucleus
what are groups of three bases? codons
how does messenger RNA carry messages of DNA? in the form of codons
when messenger RNA binds to a ribosome what does the transfer RNA with the appropriate anticodon do? bring the amino acid to the ribosome
how are amino acids linked? peptide bonds
what is formed when many amino acids are bonded by peptide bonds? a polypeptide protein
what is a change in one or more of the nucleotide bases? a mutation
what causes a mutation? a mistake while copying DNA
what causes a frameshift? insertion or deletion
what does a frameshift affect? everything from that point on
what is a change in the number or structure of chromosomes? chromosomal mutation
what kind of mutation is it when the segment is moved to non-homologous chromosome? translocation
what kind of mutation is it when a segment is repeated? duplication
what kind of mutation is it when a segment of a chromosome is lost? deletion
what kind of mutation is it when a segment is inserted in reverse orientation? inversion
what is a genetic disorder when blood fails to clot (sex-linked trait)? hemophelia
what is building recombinant DNA? genetic engeneering
what is recombinant DNA? DNA constructed from the DNA of differant organisms
how is DNA cut? restriction enzymes
what is it called when bacteria take up the recombinant DNA and express the new trait? transgenetic
what are the seven levels of classificaton (in order)? (domain), kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
why is a scientific name needed? the common name changes from place to place
what are humans scientific name? Homo sapiens
what kingdom consistes of prokayotic organisms that are single celled, and lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls? archaebacteria
what kingdom consistes of prokaryotic organisms and are called "true bacteria"? eubacteria
what kingdom consistes of eukayotic organisms, most are unicellular and some are multicellular? protista
what kingdom consistes of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that lack cell walls of chitin and are decomposers? fungi
what kingdom consistes of eukayotic, autotrophic, multicellular organisms with a cell wall of cellulose? plantae
what kingdom consistes of eukaryotic, heterotrophic, multicellular organisms that lack cell walls (most move)? animalia
what invertibrate has no true tissues (sponges)? perifera
what invertibrate has a hollow digestive cavity with tenticles (jellyfish and hydra)? cnidarians
what invertibrate has three layers of cells and bilateral symmetry (flatworms)? Platyhelminthes
what invertibrate has digestive system with mouth and anus and are round? nematoda
what invertibrate has a closed circulatory system and is segmented (earthworm)? annelida
what invertibrate has a soft body, a hard shell (in some), and three main body regions? Molluska
what invertibrate has a segmented body, jointed appendages and an exoskeleton? arthropoda
what invertibrate has dpiny skin and radial symmetry (starfish, sea urchin)? echinoderms
what vertibrate is a jawless fish? tunicates and lancelets
what vertibrate is a fish with a skeleton of cartilage? chondrichthyes
what vertibrate is a fish with skeleton and bones? osteichthyes
what vertibrate breathes through gills/lungs/moist skin, and has a three chambered heart? amphibia
what vertibrate is ectothermic, has scales, a three chambered heart and waterlight eggs? reptilia
what vertibrate is endothermic, has wings and a four chambered heart? aves
what vertibrate is endothermic and has hair and milk to feed its young? mammalia
what kind of plant has no true roots, stems or leaves? nonvascular plants
what kind of plant has tru roots, stems, leaves, and a vascular system? vascular plants
what is a group of organisms of the same species that live together in a particular location? population
what are all of the populations lining in a specific location? community
what is the community of organisms in an area, as well as the nonliving factors ofthe enviorment? ecosystem
what are the living and non-living portions of Earth that sustain life? biome
what is a non-living factor? abiotic
what is a living factor? biotic
what is an organism if it produces its own food? autotrophic
what is an organism if it gets food from other organisms? herotrophic
what is a heterotroph that eats plants? herbivore
what is a heterotroph that eats meat? carnivore
what is a heterotroph that hunts for food? decomposer
what is a heterotoph that eats material that is already dead? detritivore
what is a heterotroph that eats both plants and animals? omnivore
what is it calle when two organisms live together with close relationship? symbiosis
what form of symbiosis is it when one organism benefits and one is unaffected? commensalism
what form of symbiosis is it when barnacles attach to a whale's scin? commensalism
what form of symbiosis is it when both organisms benefit? mutualism
what form of symbiosis is it when insects pollinate plants? mutualism
what form of symbiosis is it when one organism benefits and the other is harmed? parasitism
what form of symbiosis is it when fleas attach to an organisms? parasitism
what is the harmed organism in parasitism? host
what is the process by wich individuals that are better suited to the enviorment survive and reproduce most sucessfully? natural selection
what is the selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variations among different organisms? artificial selection
what are populations of organisms that can be interbreeded? species
what are small changes in a species? microevolution
what are large changes in a species? macroevolution
what are four major points of evidence of the threory of evolution? (1) fossil record (2) geographic distibution of species (3) homologous structures (4) symilarities in embryology
why does variation exist? disease
what do individuals best suited for survival leave more of? offspring
what body system supports the body, protects the internal organs, allows movement, stores mineral reserves, and provides a site for blood cell formation? skeletal
what body system contains bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons? skeletal
what body system works with the skeletal system to provide voluntary movement, helps to circulate blood and moves food through the digestive system? muscular
what body system contains skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle? muscular
what body system serves as a barrier agains infection and injury, helps to regulate blood temperature, and provides protection agains ultraviolet radiation from the sun? integumentary
what body system contains skin, hair, nails, sweat and oil glands? integumentary
what body system converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by the cells of the body, absorbs food and eliminates waste? digestive
what body system contains mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum? digestive
what body system brings oxygen, nutrients and hormones to cells, fights infection, removes all waste and helps to regulate body temperature? circulatory
what body system contains heart, blood vessals, and blood? circulatory
what body system controls growith, deevelopment, and metabolism and maintains homeostasis? endocrine
what body system contains hypothalymus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids,adrenals, pancrease, and ovaries or testes? endocrine
what body system recognizes and coordinates the body's response to changes in it's internal and external enviornment? nervous
what body system contains the brain, spinal chord and periferal nerves? nervous
what body system helps to protect the body from disease, collects fluid lost from blood vessals and returns the fluid to the circualtory system? immune or lymphatic
what body system contains white blood cells, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymph vessals? immune or lymphatic
what body system eliminates waste products from the body in ways that maintain homeostasis? uninary or excratory
what body system contains skin, lings, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethera? urinary or excratory
what body system provides oxygen needed for cellular respiration and moves excess carbon dioxide form the body? respiratory
what body system contains nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs? respiratory
who discovered the first vaccine against anthrax? Pasteur
who perfected the simple microscope, observed cells and microorganisms and discovered protozoa? Leewenhoek
who published the book "micrographia" that contained drawings of sections of cork as seen through an early microscope? Hooke
who proposedthat all cells came from pre-existing cells, completing the cell theory? Virchow
who concluded that all plants are made of cells? Schleidan
who concluded that all animals are made of cells? Schwann
who studied viruses, and concluded that the genetic material of a bacteriophage is DNA? Hershey and Chase
who developedthe first double helix model of the structure of DNA? Watson and Crick
who discovered that since the ability to cause disease was inherited by the transformed bacterias offspring, the transforming factor might be a gene? Griffith
who discovered many new species, studied fossils, traveled to the Galapagoes Islands, discovered evolution and wrote the origin of species? Darwin
Created by: sportssweetie13