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Biology Final

QuestionAnswer
first generation(original parents) parentals
alleles separate from one another during the formation of gamates law of segregation
when a sperm cell fertilizes the egg cell of the same individual self pollination
different forms of a gene alleles
self-pollinating that results in the offspring being identical to their parent true breeding
a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another trait
there are dominant and recessive alleles, and the dominant allele masks the recessive principle of dominance
genes for different traits are inherited independently from each other law of independent asortment
scientist who studied pea plants.father of genetics gregor mendel
chromosomes that have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent homologous chromosomes
the process of reduction division in which sex cells are made meiosis
cells that contain both sets of chromosomes diploid
the seed can be broken in two sections9 contains two cotyledons) dicots
have parallel veins monocots
have flowers in multiples of 3 monocots
the vascular bundles are scattered throught the stem monocot
are anchored by a tap root dicot
surrounds and protects the embryo and prevents drying out seed coat
specialized tissue to conduct water and nutrients throught the plant stems
transport subsystem that carries water up from the roots to the rest of the plant xylem
6co2 + 6h2o - c6h12o6 + 6o2 photosynthesis equation
bear seeds i a layer of tissue that protects the seed angio sperm
creeping underground stems from which fronds originate rhizomes
substance that makes cell walls rigid so that the plant can go upright lighen
hollow cells with thick cell walls that allow water to flow efficiently in the xylem trachneids
plants life cycle is called alternation of generations
holds the two strands of DNA molcule together hydrogen bonds
proteins that DNA wraps around histones
states that adenine bonds with thymine and cytosine bonds with guanine chargoffs rule
sites on DNA where unzipping and replication occur replication forks
studied the causes of pneumonia in mice griffith
proposed the first 3-D model of DNA watson & crick
consists of a double ring pure rings
homologues line up at the equator metaphase 1
doesnt exist interphase 2
chromosomes split at the centromere meiosis
homologous chromosomes find each other and join in pairs prophase 1
sigle, circular DNA found in bacteria plasmid
cuts te DNA into specific sequences of nucleotides restriction enzymes
produced from combining the DNA of two different species transgenic organisms
"gluing" two DNA molecules together splicing
is formed from spplicing enzymes joining natural and synthetic DNA together recombinant DNA
making changes in the genetic code genetic enginering
in mammals, the ----- turns into the spinal cord dorsal hollow nerve cord
----- the phylum that contains both vertebrate and nonvertebrate chordates chordata
the ----- turns into he backbone in mammals notocord
a subphylum of chordata that contains all vertebrates vertebrada
---- is when the fetus gets nutrients from the mothers body and is then born alive viviparous
---- controls body movement in fish cerebrum
---- is when the eggs catch outside the mothers body oviparous
---- is when egg hatch inside the mothers body but nutrients are obtained by the yolk ovoviparous
an animal that regulates its internal body temperature by outside means ectotherm
a body part found at the end of the beak that is used to break open the egg egg tooth
a bird fossil that suggest reptiles are the ancestors of birds archaeopterynx
mamals like kangaroos that give birth to young who stay in a pouch where they are nourished by milk until they reach maturation marsupials
includes reptiles with long broad snouts like crocodiles and alligators crocodillians
mammals like the duck-billed platypus who have eggs that hatch and then nourish their hatchlings with milk monotremes
mammalslike humans who keep their young in the womb while nutirents and waste proucts pass through the surrounding membrane placental mammals
includes reptiles with a hard shell built into their backbone like turtles testudines
the order of frogs and toads anura
seperates the venticle into two partial chambers septum
includes scaly reptiles like lizards and snakes squamata
new bird fossil that links a common ancestor to both retiles and birds protoavis
tuataras are the only animals left in this class sphenodonta
if i have a feather, pen, and pencil in a bag, what is the probablility that i will pick up the feather 3 times in a row? 1/27
how would you show correct genotype for a homozygous dominant parent? PP
describing the student as short would be describing the students----? phenotype
if my husband has blood type A and i have blood type AB, what would NOT be a possible phenotype for our children? O
skin color is an example of ----- polygenic traits
addenine and guanine are ----- purine basis
---- has circular DNA prokaryotes
---- replication takes place in the nucleus DNA/ Eukaryotes
---- is a virus that infects a bacterium bacteriophage
what does NOT make up the back bone of DNA? sugars and phosphates
mickey mouse just recently had DNA analysis. Scientists found 12% Adennine in his cells. how much in percent is there of guanine, thymine, cytocine? Adenine and thymine have 12% and cytosine and guanine have 38%.
proteins are made of chains of ----- amino acids
each tRNA is very specific to the amino acid it carries. true or false true
ribose and deoxyribose are both ----- sugars
RNA does NOT contain ----- as a nitrogen base. thymine
in eukaryotic chromosomes, DNA replication begins at a single point in the chromosome and proceeds in two directions? true or false? true
mutations can be ----- difficult
what are two frame shift mutations? insertions/ deletions
" the fat cat went outside," being changed to "outside fat cat went the" is an example of a ----- mutation inversion
crossing a buffalo and cattle to produce beefallo is an example of ----- hybridization
if i needed to mae many copies of a particular gene, i would use ----- PCR
what s often used as a genetic marker in plasmids? bacteria
if i have a feather, pen, and pencil in a bag, what is the probablility that i will pick up the feather 3 times in a row? 1/27
how would you show correct genotype for a homozygous dominant parent? PP
describing the student as short would be describing the students----? phenotype
if my husband has blood type A and i have blood type AB, what would NOT be a possible phenotype for our children? O
skin color is an example of ----- polygenic traits
addenine and guanine are ----- purine basis
---- has circular DNA prokaryotes
---- replication takes place in the nucleus DNA/ Eukaryotes
---- is a virus that infects a bacterium bacteriophage
what does NOT make up the back bone of DNA? sugars and phosphates
mickey mouse just recently had DNA analysis. Scientists found 12% Adennine in his cells. how much in percent is there of guanine, thymine, cytocine? Adenine and thymine have 12% and cytosine and guanine have 38%.
proteins are made of chains of ----- amino acids
each tRNA is very specific to the amino acid it carries. true or false true
ribose and deoxyribose are both ----- sugars
RNA does NOT contain ----- as a nitrogen base. thymine
in eukaryotic chromosomes, DNA replication begins at a single point in the chromosome and proceeds in two directions? true or false? true
mutations can be ----- difficult
what are two frame shift mutations? insertions/ deletions
" the fat cat went outside," being changed to "outside fat cat went the" is an example of a ----- mutation inversion
crossing a buffalo and cattle to produce beefallo is an example of ----- hybridization
if i needed to mae many copies of a particular gene, i would use ----- PCR
what s often used as a genetic marker in plasmids? bacteria
what are three uses of gel electrophoresis? compares genomes of different organisms to locate specific genes; forensics; and molecular biology
DNA has a ----- charge negative
----- is continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics inbreeding
if i wanted to see if a geneic disorder was the consequence of a chromosomal mutation, i would use a ----- karyotype
if i wanted to see how a genetic disorder is inherited(dominant, recessive, codomoniant, etc), i would use a ----- pedigree
no two people have the same DNA true
if i am pregnant and want a boy, whose fault is it if i get a girl? (dad) because he bought cheap condoms, ;)
humans have ----- chromosomes 46
females have ----- chromosomes x
chromosomes that are NOT sex chromosomes are called ----- autosomes
trisomy 21 in a female is scientifically written as ----- 47 xx + 21
if a person on a pedigree is recessive, their shape should not be colored. true or false false
a male is represented on a pedigree by ----- square
when can linked genes be separated? crossing over
there are far more ----- with colorblindness males
down syndrome, turners syndrome, kleinfelter's syndrome are all a result of ----- non disjunction
---- is a DNA used to get a DNA fingerprint transgenic
what was the goal of the human genome project? analyze human DNA sequence
---- is the process of replacing a faulty gene with a working gene gene therapy
we normally ----- use in gene therapy because they can be easily integrated into the cells DNA viruses
the ----- helps us eliminate the nitrogen that can be harmful in our bodies excretion
our muscles originated from what germ layer? mesoderm
a ----- is an organism whose mouth is formed from the blastopore protosome
----- are the only animals without body symmetry sponge
skin is an example of ------ tissue epitherial
if an organism has a right and left side, they have ------- symmetry bilateral
what are the characterisitcs of cnidarians? soft bodied, symmetrical, carnivorous
the ------ are groups of cells that form an eyespot for detecting light ocelli
jellyfish are always seen in the ------ stages medusa
----- are nerve cells that detect stimuli such as touch nerve net
coral are solitary/ colonial? colonial
----- were the most primitive vertebrates jawless fish
the most advanced fish today is ------ bony fish
------- is the muscular cavity found at the end of large intestine where waste, urine, eggs, and sperm leave the amphibians body cloaca
amphibian eggs must be layed in ----- because they lack a ------ to prevent desiccation water; shell
list three characteristics of reptiles dry skin, lungs, terrestial eggs
list 5 characterisitcs of mammals hair, mammary glands, breathe air, 4 chambered heart, endoderm
the system that regulates the release of hormones for body activities ------ system indocrine
we belong to the order ------ primates
parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma are all types of ----- ground tissue
the main pigment used to harvest the suns energy is -------- and absourbs ------ light chlorophyll/everything but green
the organelle found in plants algae where photosynthesis occurs is the ------ chloroplast
Created by: shany