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Science 7th grade

Nervous system modified review sheet

Homeostasis- maintaining a constant internal balance; responding to stimuli
Stimuli- An external or internal change that brings about a reaction
Neurons- Nerve cells that are made up of axons, dendrites and cell body
Axons- Carry impulses AWAY from the cell body
Dendrites- Carry impulses TO the cell body
Sensory Neurons- Send Impulses(information) to the Brain and Spinal cord
interneurons- found in brain and spinal cord and send impulses from sensory neurons to motor Neurons
Motor Neurons- relay information to muscles or glands in the body
Impulse transfer Impulse moves from axon of one neuron to dendrites of another; Moves across synapse
Synapse- space between axon and dendrites
neurotransmitters chemicals that are released that carry impulse across synapse
central nervous System (CNS) made up of brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) made up of all nerves outside of the CNS; all nerves in your head and coming off of spinal cord
Cerebrum largest part; where thinking occurs; memory is stored and movements are controlled
Cortex outer portion; have ridges and grooves that increase surface area so more complex thoughts can occur
Cerebellum Under the cerebrum; coordinates voluntary muscle movements,maintain balance and muscle tone. i.e. helps ride a bike
Brain stem base of brain; connects to brain to spinal cord
medulla controls involuntary actions like hearbeat, breathing, blood pressure, coughing, sneezing swallowing and vomiting
Spinal cord in adult is as wide as adult thumb
spinal cord carries impulses from teh body to the brain and from the brain to the body
reflexs involuntary automatic response to a stimulus - controlled in your spinal cord - brain acts after reflex to help you figure out what to do to make pain stop
Drugs directly affect the nervous system
Drugs destroy brain and liver cells
Drugs can be a depressant and slow down responses of CNS as well as thinking processes
Drugs can be a stimulant that speeds up heart rate, cause sleeplessness and can cause kidney to make more urine
Nearsighted focus in front of retina
farsighted focus behind retina
Cornea transparent membrane that protects the eye - allows light to enter
Pupil opening the fron of the eye that allows light to enter
Retina light sensitive area in the back of the eye
rods detect dim light; used in night vision
cones detect colors
rods and cones impulses from these photoreceptors travel to brain along the optic nerve
Iris the part of the eye gives its color
lens piece of curved material behind the pupil that allows the light to pass through but changes its direction - focuses entering light on the retina
Curved lens looking at objects close to the eye - lens is more curved
flatter lens looking at objects far away - lens is flatter
hearing-now sound moves 1) sound begins when object starts to vibrate because air particles push on each other and transfer energy
hearing- now sound moves 2 2) waves move from outer ear to middle ear(causes tiny bones in eardrum to vibrate) to cochlea of the inner ear fluid
Job of neurons in cochlea convert waves to electrical impulses and sends them to the part of the brain that interprets sound
Taste buds contain receptors for taste; located in teh papillae
4 types of taste buds sweet sour salty bitter
Olfactory cells receptors for smell that are located in the upper part of your nasal cavity. brain combines information from your taste buds and nose to give a sense of smell
Created by: kyky0597