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GCSE Biology B1

What's the difference between "fit" and "healthy"? Can you be one without the other? Fit is a measure of how well you perform physical tasks. Being Healthy is where you are free of any infection or diseases. You can have one without the other.
What is "areobic respiration"? Areobic just means "with oxygen". This is the most efficient way to release energy from Glucose. This is the type of respiration you use most of the time. Respirattion is the process of releasing energy from glucose. This happens constantly in every cell.
Give the word equation for areobic respiration. Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water (+ Water)
Give the symbol equation for areobic respiration. C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O (+ energy)
Explain what oxygen debt is and how it relates to fitness. After vigorous exercise, your muscles are still short of oxygen. You also need the extra oxygen to break down the lactic acid in the muscles. The less fit you are, the higher the oxygen debt.
Name 6 nutrients the body needs and what they are needed for. Carbohydrates: provide energy. Fats: provide energy, acts as an energy store, provides insulation. Proteins: growth and repair of tissues, to provide energy in emergencies. Vitamins: various functions. Minerals: vaious functions. Water: replace water loss
Define obesity. This is where someone is 20% (or more) over the recommended body weight.
Name 3 disorders/diseases that obese people are more likely to get. It can increase the risk of diabetes, artritis, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease and some forms of cancer.
Name one psychological disorder that can cause under nutrition. Anorexia or Bulimia.
Name three types of digestive enzyme and say what they do. Carbohydrases break down carbohydrates, e.g. starch into simple sugars. Proteases convert proteins into amino acids. Lipases converts fats into glycerol and fatty acids.
How does bile help digestion? Bile is an alkaline. It neutralises the acid from the stomach to make pH conditions right in the small intestine for the enzymes to work in.
Name four types of micro organism that can cause disease and give an example for each. Fungi - can cause atheletes foot. Bacteria - can cause cholera. Viruses - Flu is caused by a virus. Protozoa - dysentry is caused by protozoa.
Explain how the immune system deals with pathogens. They either consume them, produce anti-toxins or they produce antibodies.
Explain how immunisation stops you from getting infections. A dead or inactive micro-organism is injected into you. These carry antigens on them, and the body produces antibodies to "kill" it off. If the live micro-organism appears afterwards, it is killed immediately because the body has developed against it.
Explain the difference between malignant and benign tumours. Benign is where the tumour grows until there is no more room, these cells stay where they are and is the least dangerous of the two. Malignant is where the tumour can spread to other sites in the body. This is the most dangerous of the two.
What is a double blind clinical trial? Neither the scientist or the patients know if they have the placebo or the actual drug until the data is collected.
Define the terms prescription, addiction, tolerence and rehabilitaiton. Prescription - you can buy them over the counter at a chemists. Addiction - they have a physical need for the drug. Tolerence - the body gets used to the drug. Rehabilitation - this a place to get help and support to overcome a drug addiction.
How does a stimulant drug work? These increase the activity in the brain, increasing the amount of transmittant substance at some neurone synapses.
How does a depressant drug work? These decrease the activity in the brain. These slow down the responses of the nervous system.
How does a painkiller work? These reduce the number of "painful" stimuli at the nerve endings near an injury.
How do performance enhancers work? They help build muscle and allow the athelete to train harder.
How do hallucinogens work? They distort what is seen and heard by altering the pathways nerve impulses normally travel along.
Describe four different illnesses smoking can cause. It can cause heart disease and disease of the blood vessels, leading to heart attacks and stokes. Smoking can also cause cancers, broncitis, emphysema and many other diseases.
Describe the path of light when travelling into the eye. The cornea refracts the light into the eye. The iris controls how much light is allowed to come into the eye. The lens focusses the light onto the retina.
What is the purpose of reflex actions? These stop you from hurting yourself.
Explain how negative feedback helps to maintain a constant internal environment. These changes trigger a response that counteracts the changes. These internal environement tends stay around the norm.
Describe how body temperature is reduced when you get too hot. The hairs on your arms lay flat. Sweat is produced which evapourates to cool you down. Blood vessels vasolidate (get wider) and heat is lost through raditation.
Explain how insulin controls blood sugar levels. The pancreas monitors how much glucoe is in the blood. If there is too much, insulin is added and makes the glucose in the liver turn into glycogen. If there is too little, the lack of insulin in the liver turns glycogen into glucose.
Explain what diabetes is and two ways in which it can be controlled. Type one is where the pancreas cannot produce insulin. This can be controlled by avoiding foods that are rich in simple carbohydrates. It is also helpful if they exercise after they have eaten. Another way is by injecting insulin into themselves.
What secondary sexual characteristics does testosterone trigger in males? Extra hair on their face and body, muscles develop, penis and testicles enlarge, sperm production and deepening of the voice.
How does the hormone FSH increase fertility in women? This is taken by women who aren't releasing eggs to stimualte egg development in their ovaries. FSH stimulates the ovaries to produce oestrogen which stimulates the release of an egg.
Describe the structure of DNA. What are genes? DNA is a long list of instructions on how to put an organism together and make it work. Each seperate gene is a chemical instruction showing how to make particular protein.
Explain how bases determine what protein a gene codes for. The order of the bases in a gene controls the order of amino acids in a protein.
Name two sources of genetic variation. Gamete formation - making sperm cells and egg cells, then fertilisation - the gametes join together. Mutations - changes in the genetic codes.
Name three things that can cause genetic mutations. They can happen spontaneously - where a chromosome may not copy itself correctly. Exposure to raditation, x-rays or ultraviolet rays can also cause mutations. Lastly, chemicals called mutagens can cause mutations (e.g. cigarette smoke contains mutagens).
What is an allele? An allele is a different version of the same gene.
Which chromosome determines your gender? There are 23 matched pairs of chromosomes in every human cell. The 23rd pair determine your gender.
Created by: MychemicalMad
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