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Intro to Pharm

5 steps of the nursing process assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, evaluation
responsibilities of the RN dictated by the licensure and experience licensure and authority to carry out all steps of the nursing process
responsibilities of the LVN dictated by the licensure and experience working under the supervision of the RN; assess, implement, and evaluate with guidance
two types of data assessment subjective and objective
subjective data obtained through questioning; info that cannot be measured
objective data obtained through observation; info that is observed or could be verified by another
inspection close observation
palpation feeling
percussion detecting differences n vibrations through the skin
auscultation listening with a stethoscope
drug history assessment meds and alcohol interract and will affect pts
helpful info to be used in planning drug therapy symptoms, signs or diseases that explain need for medication
diagnosis conclusion abt what the pts problems are
medical diagnosis what physicians makes
nursing diagnosis what nurses makes
planning patient goals help the patient learn about a medication and how to use it properly
planning nurse goals help the nurse plan what equipment or procedures are needed to administer a medication
four steps of planning 1. determine the reason for each med to be given 2. learn info re the medication 3. plan for special storage, techniques, or equip 4. develop a pt teaching plan
6 rights of medication administration RIGHT 1. drug 2. time 3. dose 4. patient 5. route 6. documentation
right drug - drug label is verified 3 times 1. before taking the drug fr the unit dose cart or shelf 2. before preparing the prescribed dosage 3. before replacing the med on the shelf or before admin it to the pt
S.R. (sustained release) or enteric coated drugs should never be crushed
what is the most rapid response of body to the drugs? IV
what would you tell a pt when taking drugs orally? drink lots of water to help dissolve med
how would a nurse ensure the med order is accurate? by checking the medication record with the physician's order sheet.
right dose consideration age, weight, health status and recent change in health status
right routes it alters affects for medications; nurses must not alter the route prescribed for a medication without a physician's order
evaluation of what happens when you administer drug and documentation it helps the dr decide whether or not to continue the same drug or change it through your documentation
when should nurses document after they given drug to patient as soon as they gave it to the patient
when should nurses verify if the narcotic administered is working every 30 minutes
why should medication be held if there is a change in the pt's condition? maybe they don’t need it anymore
two types of checks needed for drug therapy adverse (not working) effect and therapeutic (working) effect
diffusion the process by which substances move back and forth across a membrane until they are evenly distribted throughout the available space
osmosis the movement of pure solvent (liquid) across a membrane
filtration the movement of water and suspended substances outward through a semipermeable membrane
drug half life time it takes for the plasma concentration of drug to reach half of its original concentration
how do toxic byproduct can be excreted out of a body breast milk, feces and urine
SCHEDULE I (C-I) -high abuse potential; no accepted medical use.-may lead to severe psychologic or physical dependence-LSD, heroin, marijuana
SCHEDULE II (C-II) -abuse potential may lead to severe psychologic or physical dependence-amphetamines, meperidine, methadone, methaqualone, morphine
SCHEDULE III (C-III) -abuse potential may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychologic dependence-aspirin w codeine, tylenol w codeine, paregonic
SCHEDULE IV (C-IV) -abuse potential of limited physical or psychologic dependence-some sedatives, nonnarcotic, analgesics, valium, xanax, ativan
SCHEDULE V (C-V) -limited abuse potential, primarily small amounts of narcotics (codeine), used as antitussiveor antidiarrheals-lomotil, promethazine w codeine
prescription drugs ordered by authorized personnel MD etc
OTC bought at local drug store or supermarket, self administered, no Rx
generic drug names most commonly used, NOT capitalized, the name manufacturer uses & is the same in every country
trade or brand name drug name is followed by the symbol which indicates name is registrated to a specific manufacturer
what if patient refuse med? put med back on cart and say "maybe we can discuss why you do not want to take them so I can call to report to MD to help assess." know your drug
enteral route most common route is by mouth but it takes longer to be effective
parental route refers to any route other than alimentary canal into skin, subcutaneous.
percutaneous route through topical skin, ID (under the toungue)
transdermal this is a type of percutaneous route that is impregnated patches placed against skin
side effects a mild, annoying drug reaction. Ie n/v dizziness, drowsiness
adverse reactions an undesired drug effect other than side effects, maybe moderate, severe or life threatening, may require pt to be hospitalized
allergic or hypersensitivity reaction usually occurs after exposed to a drug & the body has developed antibodies to it
anaphylactic reaction most serious type of an allergic reaction. Serious reaction after the administration of drug. Requires immediate medical attention = LIFE
teratogenic drug use results in deformities in a developing fetus
DRUG INTERACTION: additive when 2 drugs are given together, the combined effect of the drugs is equal to either that of the single more active component of the mixture or the sum of the effects of the indiv drug
DRUG INTERACTION: antagonistic one drug interferes with the action of another drug. Ie TCN + antacid = reduced absorption of TCN
DRUG INTERACTION: synergistic potentiates or boosts; combined effect of the 2 drugs is greater than the sum effect of each drug given alone
DRUG INTERACTION: displacement takes place when one drug replaces another drug receptor site, increasing the effect of the first drug
DRUG INTERACTION: interference when one drug promotes rapid excretion of another, reducing the activity of the first drug
DRUG INTERACTION: incompatibility when two drugs mixed together in a syringe produce a chemical reaction so they cannot be given at the same time/site = haziness, precipitate, change color on mixing
Created by: jekjes