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PN2200-week.2

Peds. Cardiovascular & Hematologic disorders

QuestionAnswer
What occurs with a Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)? the septum opening between the left and right atria d/t the foramen ovale not closing
What happens within the body because of ASD? there is increased pressure on right side resulting in ventricular hypertrophy, increased pulmonary artery blood flow
What are the signs and symptoms of ASD? may be asymptomatic, fatigue, delayed growth, CHF, soft-systolic heart murmur
how is ASD diagnosed? echocardiogram, Chest x-rays
ASD treatments? closed/patched through a surgical process, cardiac catheterization using a septal occluder
What occurs with a Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) ? the ductus arteriosus fails to close and the blood is pushed from the aorta to the pulmonary artery
What happens within the body because of PDA? increases the blood flow to lungs causing right ventricle hypertrophy and increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation
What are the signs and symptoms of PDA? full, bounding pulse, dyspnea, tachypnea, delayed growth patterns
If a child has PDA, what are they at a risk for? CHF, hepatomegaly, intercostal retractions
how is PDA diagnosed? chest x-ray, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram
What is a drug commonly used for PDA and why? prostaglandin inhibitor because it helps to stimulate the closure of the ductus arteriosus
What occurs with a Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) ? abnormal opening in the septum between the ventricles
What are the signs and symptoms of VSD? most are asymptomatic, dyspnea, tachypnea, delayed growth patterns, reduced fluid intake, CHF
How is VSD diagnosed? chest x-ray, ECG, echocardiogram
How is VSD treated? many spontaneously close in the 1st year of life. If not, defects are usually repaired between 6-8 months
What is Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)? its a combination of four defects: pulmonary stenosis, Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), right ventricular hypertrophy, and an overriding aorta.
What is Pulmonary Stenosis? narrowing of the pulmonary valve
What occurs within the body with TOF? The rt ventricle tries to push blood through the narrowed pulmonary valve,the ventrucular muscle enlarges(Rt. ventricular hypertropy) As the pressure in the right ventricle rises,blood is pused through the VSD into aorta, where it mixes oxygenated blood.
What are signs and symptoms of TOF? can be cyanotic and hypoxic, delayed growth, metabolic acidosis, clubbing of fingers, exercise intolerance
How is TOF diagnosed? ECG, Chest X-ray, echocardiogram, cardiac catheterization
How is TOF treated? Surgical corrections are generally done when child is over 6-months of age, only done <6 months if symptoms are severe.
What is coarctation? a narrowing of the aorta
What happens on the body because of coarctation? it restricts flow of blood to the body, causing the Left ventricle to work hard to force blood through narrowed aorta. Over time, will lead to CHF.
What is a tell-tell signs of coarctation? the blood pressure will usually be higher in the arms and lower in the legs. Pulses are strong and bounding in the arms, neck and head and lower pulses are weak or absent.
How is coarctation diagnosed? ECG, chest X-ray, MRI
How is coarctation treated? Is usually repaired during the first year of life via balloon dilation, anastomosis, or surgical resection.
What is transposition of the great arteries? A defect where the positions of aorta and pulmonary artery are reversed.
What are the signs and symptoms of transposition of the great arteries? cynosis(that may not improve with oxygen), hypoxia, acidosis, CHF, tachypnea, delayed growth
How is transposition of the great arteries diagnosed? chest X-ray, echocardiogram
How is transposition of the great arteries treated? Prostaglandin E is given IV immediately to maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus prior to surgical intervention.
How does CHF affect the body? it decreases cardiac output
Created by: 641713869