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Cervical Vert

Radiagraphy Cerv Vert

Lateral Projection-Swimmers Technique Twining and Pawlow Methods
Twining Method PT part upright lateral position
Pawlow Method PT part recumbent lateral position w/head elevated on PT's arm
IR for Swimmers Technnique centered at level of C7-T1 interspace; 2" above jugular notch
Swimmers Technique position part arm closest to IR above head; humeral head can be moved anteriorly
Respiration for Swimmers Technique suspend or if PT can a breathing technique can be used to blur the lung anatomy
CR for Swimmers Technique Directed at C7-T1 if shoulder away from IR is depressed or at an anlge of 3-5 caudal wen should cannot be depressed
Eval for Swimmers Technique Lower cervical and upper thoracic not rotated; humeral heads min SI on vert column
Position for PA Axial Oblique Projection RAO or LAO position
SID for PA Axial Oblique 60"-72" because of increased OID
Position PT for PA Axial Oblique upright w/ PT back toward x-ray tube
Position part for PA Axial Oblique Upright or semisupine; rotate PR 45 to place foramina = w/ IR
IR centered for PA Axial Oblique centered at level of C5 which allows for caudal angualtion
Why elevate and protrude chine in PA Axial Oblique prevents SI of mandible w/ upper cervical
CR for Pa Axial Oblique C4 at an anlge of 15-20 caudad which will coincide w/ angle of foramina
Structures shown for PA Axial Oblique intervertebral foramina and pedicles closest to IR
Evaluation criteria for PA Axial Oblique open intervert foramina closest to IR; C1-T1; open intervert disk space; occipital bone not overlapping axis; mandible not overlapping C1-C2
Position for AP Axial Oblique Projection RPO and LPR position
SID for AP Axial Oblique 60"-72" because of increased OID
PT position for AP Axial Oblique supine for upright facing the x-ray tube
Position of part AP Axial Oblique rotate body 45 and center cervical spine to midline of IR
IR position for AP Axial Oblique Center the IR to the 3rd cervical body, superior to the most prominent point of thyroid cartilage
CR for AP Axial Oblique Directed at C4 at a cephald angle of 15-20 so the CR coincides w/ angle of foramina
Structures shown for AP Axial Oblique intervertebral foramina and pedicles farthest from IR
Evaluation criteria for AP Axial Oblique open intervert foramina farthest from IR from C2-T1; open intervert disk space; elevated chin that doesn't overlap atlas/axis; occipital bone not overlapping axis
What is the method for the Lateral Projection Grandy Method
SID for Grandy Method 60"-72" SID for increased OID, the longer distance helps demo C7
PT position for Grandy Method true lateral, upright standing or sitting
IR for Grandy Method Height or IR centered at level of C4, top of IR will be about 1" above EAM
Position part for Grandy Method center coronal plane through mastoid process tips to midline of IR
Which directions to rotate shoulders for Grandy Method anteriorly or posteriorly according to PT natural kyphosis and depress shoulders as much as possible
Chin for Grandy Method elevate slightly, to prevent SI of mandibular rami and spine
Respiration for Grandy Method suspend at end of full expiration to obtain maximal depression of shoulders
CR for Grandy Method Horizontal and perpendiculat to C4; magnified shoulder farthest from IR is projected below the lower cerv vert
Structures shown for Grandy Method later projection of cerv vert bodies, their interspaces, articular pillars, lower 5 zyga jts; spinous processes; good lat will include C7
Evaluation criteria for Grandy Method all 7 cerv vert and 1/3 of T1; neck extended fo mandibular rami are not overlapping C1/C2; SI rami of mandible; C4 in center of radiograph; no rotation or tilt of cerv spine indicated by SI open zyga jts adn intervert disk space
PT position for AP Axial supine ro upright; shoulders lie in same plane
Part position for AP Axial extend chin do occlusal plane is perpendicular to tbl
Why extend chin for AP Axial prevents SI of mandible and midcervical vert
IR position for AP Axial centered at level of C4
Cr for AP Axial though C4 at an anlge of 15-20 cephalad; enters slightly inferior to most prominent point of thyroid cart
Structures shown for AP Axial lower 5 cerv bodies and upper 2 thoracid bodies; SI transverse adn articular processes; intervert disk space
Evaluation criteria for AP Axial superior C3-T2; shadows of mandible and occiput SI over C1/C2; open intervert disk space; spinous process equidistant to pedicles and aligned w/ midling of cerv bodies; mandibular angles and mastoid process equidistant to the vert
What is the method for Dens AP Projection Fuchs Method
PT position for Fuchs Method supine, center midsagittal plane of the body to midline of grid
Part position for Fuchs Method extend chin until tip of chin and tip of mastiod process are vertical
IR for Fuchs Method perpendicular to midpoint of IR; enters the neck on midsagittal plane just distal to tip of chin
Structures shown for Fuchs Method AP projection of the dens lying w/in circular foramen magnum
Evaluation criteria for Fuchs Method entire dens w/in foramen magnum; symmetry of mandible, crandium, and vert, indicating no rotation of head or neck
Atlas and Axis AP Projection Open Mouth
SID for Open Mouth 30" to increase the field of view of the odontoid area
PT position for Open Mouth Supine; center midsag to midline fo grid
Position part for Open Mouth open mouth as wide as possible; adjust head so that a line form the lower edge of upper incisors to tip of mastoid process is perpendicular to IR
IR position for Open Mouth centered at level of axis
Respiration for Open Mouth keep mouth open and phonate "ah" to place tongue in the floor of mouth so tongue is not projected on C1/C2
CR for Open Mouth perpendicular to center of IR entering at midpoint of open mouth
Structures shown for Open Mouth AP of axis/atlas through open mouth
Evaluation criteria for Open Mouth dens, atlas, axis, and articulations between the 1st and 2nd cerv vert; entire articular surfaces of atlas/axis; SI occlusal plane of the upper central incissors and the base of the skull
Created by: smweckler