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AP Government

Chapter 2 Vocab

Constitution A nations basic law
Declaration of Independence The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their greivances against the British monarch and declared their independence
Natural Rights Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, which include life, liberty, and property
Consent of the Governed The idea that government derives its authority by sanction of the people
Limited Government The idea that certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect the natural rights of citizens
Articles of Confederation The first constitution of the United States, adopted by congress in 1777
Shay's Rebellion A series of attacks on courthouse by a samll band of farmers led by War captain Daniel Shays to block forecloure proceedings
U.S. Constitution The document written in 1787 that set forth the institutional structure of U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform
Factions Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth
New Jersey Pan called for equal representation of each state in congress regardless of the states population
Virgina Plan The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation of each state in congress in proportion to that states share of the U.S. population
Connecticut Compromise Two houses of Congress: House of Reps, in which representation is based on a states share of the U.S. population, and the Senate, in which each state has two representatives
Writ of Habeas Corpus A court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner
Separation of Powers A feature of the Constitution that requires each of the three branches of government to be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot control the others
Checks and Balance Features of the Constition that limit government power by requiring that power be balanced amoung the different government institutions
Republic A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws
Federalists Supporters of the U.S. constitution of the time the states were cotemplating its adoption
Anti-Federalists Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were comtemplating its adoption
Bill of Rights The first ten Amendments to the U.S. constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalists concerns. These amendments defines such basic liberties as freeedom of religion
Equal Rights Amendment A constitutional amendment passed by congress in 1972 stating that equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex
Marbury v. Madison The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. constitution
Judicial Review The power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress, and by implication the executive, are in accord with the U.S. constitution
Created by: crescenti