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Microbio-Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Nutrition Process by which chemical substances(nutrients) are acquired from the environment and used in cellular activities
Nutrient Any chemical substance that must be provided to a cell for normal metabolism and growth
Essential Nutrient A substance that cannot be formed by an organism and must be supplied in the diet
Macronutrients Required in large quantities; plays important roles in structure and metabolism; examples-Proteins, carbohydrates
Micronutrients (trace elements) Required in small amounts; involved in enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure; examples-Manganese, zinc, nickle
Organic nutrients Contains carbon and hydrogen atoms and usually the products of living things; examples-methane CH4, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
inroganic nutrients atom or molecule that contains a combination of atoms other than carbon and hydrogen; examples-metals and their salts (Magnesium sulfate, ferric nitrate, sodium phosphate), gases (oxygen, Carbon Dioxide), and water
Heterotroph Organism that must obtain its carbon in an organic form made by other living organisms such as proteins, carbs, lipids, and nucleic acids
Autotroph Organism that uses inorganic CO2 as its carbon source and not nutritionally dependent on other living things
Growth Factor An organic compound such as a vitamin or amino acid that must be provided as a nutrient in the diet to facilitate growth
Photoautotrophs photosynthetic; organism that uses light for its energy and CO2 for its carbon needs; aka they can make own food in presence of light
Oxygenic photosynthesis oxygen producing photosynthesis; uses chlorophyll as its pigment
Anoxygenic photosynthesis non oxygen producing photosynthesis; uses unique pigment
Chemoautotroph (lithoautotrophs) Organism that relies on inorganic chemicals for its energy and CO2 for its carbon; survive totally on inorganic substances
Methanogens a type of chemoautotroph; microbes that produce methane gas under anaerobic conditions
Chemoheterotrophs derives both carbon and energy from organic compounds
Saprobes Free living microorganisms that feed on organic detritus from dead organisms
Opportunistic pathogen saprobe is considered opportunistic when the host is compromised and infection may occur
Facultative parasite when a saprobe infects a host
Parasites derive nutrients from host; grow in or on the body of a host
Pathogens An agent that causes diseases (pathogens and parasites are interchangeable)
Obligate parasites Parasites that are dependent because they are unable to grow outside of a living host
Passive transport Does not require energy; substances exist in a gradient and move from areas of higher to lower concentration
Diffusion Net movement of molecules down their concentration gradient by random thermal motion to achieve a uniform distribution
Osmosis Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane in direction of lower concentration
Isotonic environment equal in solute concentration to cells internal environment
hypotonic solute concentration of external environment is lower than cell's internal environment
hypertonic higher solute concentration in external environment than its internal environment
Playmolysis condition in cells with a wall, water loss causes shrinkage but does not collapse
Facilitated diffusion passive movement of substance across from high to low concentration using carrier proteins
Active transport requires energy and carrier proteins; gradient independent; from low to high concentration???
Group Translocation Type of active transport; Transported molecule is chemically altered
Bulk transport Mass transport of large particles, cells, liquids by engulfment and vesicle formation (endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis)
Niche Totality of adaptations organisms make to their habitat; OR an organism's biological role in or contribution to its community
Minimum temperature (1/3 cardinal temp) lowest temperature that permits a microbe's growth and metabolism
Maximum temperature (2/3 cardinal temp) highest temperature that permits a microbe's growth and metabolism
Optimum temperature (3/3 cardinal temp) promotes fastest rate of growth and metabolism (temperature between min and max)
Psychrophiles microorganisms that have optimum temperature below 15 degrees celsius and is capable of growth at 0 degrees celsium (0-15)
Mesophiles microorganisms that have optimum temperature from 20-40 degrees celsius; most human pathogens
Thermophiles microorganisms that grow optimally at temperatures greater that 45 degrees celsius
Aerobe uses oxygen and can detoxify it (aka a microbe that lives and grows in presence of free oxygen gas)
Obligate aerobe cannot grow without oxygen
facultative anaerobe uses oxygen but can also grow in its absence
microaerophile requires only a small amount of oxygen
anaerobe doesn't use oxygen (aka microbes that grow best in absence of oxygen)
obligate anaerobe lacks enzymes to detoxify oxygen so cannot survive in oxygen environment
aerotolerant anaerobe does not use oxygen but can survive and grow in its presence
capnophile grows best at high CO2 concentrations/tensions than normally present in the atmosphere
alkalinophiles grows at extreme alkaline pH (8 and 9 ?)
halophiles require a high concentration of salt
osmotolerant do not require a high concentration of solute/salt but can tolerate it if it occurs
barophiles can survive under extreme pressure and will rupture if exposed to normal atmospheric pressure
symbiotic organisms that live in close partnership
mutualism obligatory, dependent, both member benefit
parasitism parasite is dependent and benefits, host is harmed
nonsymbiotic organisms are free living and relationships are not required for survival
synergism members cooperate to produce a result that none of them could do alone (example-biofilm)
antagonism a type of competition in which some members are inhibited or destroyed by others (actions of one organism affects the success or survival of others in same community
antibiosis production of inhibitory compounds such as antibiotics
obligate acidophiles grows at extreme pH (1-7)
halophiles require a high concentration of salt
osmotolerant do not require a high concentration of solute but can tolerate it if it occurs
barophiles can survive under extreme pressure and will rupture if exposed to normal atmospheric pressure
symbiotic organisms that live in close partnership
commensalism commensal member benefits, other member neither harmed nor benefitted
biofilms a complex association that arises from microorganisms growing together and interacting on surface of a habitat (results when organisms attach to a substrate/surface by some form of extracellular matrix that binds them together in complex organized layers)
Quorum sensing an activity among bacteria in bioflims in which members signal each other and coordinate their function
generation/doubling time the time required for a complete fission cycle growth curve
lag phase "flat" period of adjustment, enlargement and there is little growth
exponential growth phase a period of maximum growth will continue as long as cells have adequate nutrients and favorable environment
stationary phase rate of cell growth equals rate of cell death caused by depletion of nutrients and O2, excretion of organic acids and pollutants
death phase as limiting factors intensify, cells die exponentially
Turbidometry most simple way of analyzing population growth, simple observation of seeing cloudiness (turbidity reflects population size)
viable colony count quantitative evaluation of counting bacteria
direct cell count count all cells present, automated or manually
coulter counter electronically scans a culture and as cells pass through device, electronic detector counts numbers
flow cytometer in addition to counting number of cells, it can measure cell size and differentiate between live and dead cells
Created by: jillyc86