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earthquakes & v

earthquake and volcano vocabulary

Earthquake vibrations produced when rocks break along a fault
Fault surface along which rocks move when they pass their elastic limit and break
Focus in an earthquake, the point below Earth's surface where energy is released in the form of seismic waves
Primary waves seismic wave that moves rock particles back-and-forth in the same direction that the wave travels
Secondary waves seismic wave that moves rock particles at right angles to the direction of the wave
Surface waves seismic wave that moves rock particles up-and-down in the backward rolling motion and side-to-side in a swaying motion
Epicenter point on Earth's surface directly above and earthquake's focus
Seismograph instrument used to register earthquake waves and record the time that each arrived
Richter scale a scale used to measure the magnitude of an earthquake
modified Mercalli scale a scale used to measure the amount of damage that occurred during an earthquake
volcano opening in Earth's surface that erupts sulfurouse gases, ash, and lava; can form at Earth's plate boundaries, where plates move apart or together, and at hot spots
vent opening where magma is forced up and flows out onto Earth's surface as lava, forming a volcano
crater steep-walled depression around a volcano's vent
Hot spot the result of an unusually hot area at the boundary between Earth's mantle and core that forms volacoes when melted rock is forced upward and breaks through the crust
Shield volcano broad, gently sloping volcano formed by quiet eruptions of basaltic lava
cinder cone volcano steep-sided, loosely packed volcano formed when tephra falls to the ground
composite volcano volcano built by alternating explosive and quiet eruptions that produce layers of tephra and lava; found mostly where Earth's plates come together and one plate sinks below the other
tephra bits of rock or soldified lava dropped from the air during an explosive volcanic eruption; ranges in size from volcanic ash to volcanic bombs and blocks
Created by: pistons22