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Psych 367 M1

Absolute threshold smallest stimulus level that can just be detected
Action motor activities in response to the stimulus
Bottom-up processing (data-based processing) processing that is based on the stimuli reaching the receptor
Categorize to place objects into categories
Cerebral cortex 2-mm-thick layer that contains the machinery for creating perceptions
Classical psychophysical methods the method of limits, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of adjustment
Difference threshold the smallest difference between two stimuli that enables us to tell the difference between them
Distal stimulus out there in the environment
Frontal lobe receives signals from all of the senses, plays an important role in perceptions that involve the coordination of information received through two or more senses
Grating acuity thee smallest width of lines that participants can detect
Knowledge any information that the perceiver brings to a situation, such as prior experience or expectations
Magnitude estimation measuring judgements of sensory stimuli in a mathematical way (bright, dim; big, small)
Method of adjustment adjusts the stimulus intensity continuously until he or she can just barely detect the stimulus
Method of constant stimuli different stimulus intensities are presented one at a time, and the participant must respond whether they perceive it (“yes” or “no”) on each trial
Method of limits stimuli are presented in a graduated scale, and participants must judge whether they detected the stimulus or not
Neural processing changes in signals that occur as they are transmitted through the brain
Oblique effect that people see vertical or horizontal lines better than lines oriented obliquely
Occipital lobe primary receiving area for vision
Parietal lobe area for the skin senses—touch, temperature, and pain
Perceived magnitude number for “loudness”
Perception experience that results from the stimulation of the senses
Perceptual process journey from stimuli to responses
Phenomenological report Describing what is out there
Physiology–behavior relationship relates physiological responses and behavioral responses
Primary receiving area the lobe of the brain for each type of sensation
Principle of representation everything a person perceives is based not on direct contact with stimuli but on representations of stimuli that are formed on the receptors and the resulting activity in the person’s nervous system.
Principle of transformation stimuli and responses created by stimuli are transformed, or changed, between the distal stimulus and perception.
Proximal stimulus representation of the distal stimulus on the receptors (electron, photons, vibrations)
Psychophysics measures the relationships between the physical (the stimulus) and the psychological (the behavioral response)
Rat–man demonstration the image that you either interpret as a rat or a man depending on what you were primed for
Reaction time speed with which we react to something
Recognition placing an object in a category
Sensation the stimulation of the sensory organs/ receptors
Sensory receptors neurons specialized to respond to environmental stimuli
Stimulus–behavior relationship relates stimuli to behavioral responses, such as perception, recognition, and action
Stimulus–physiology relationship relationship between stimuli (Steps 1–2) and physiological responses
Temporal lobe hearing
Thresholds measure the limits of sensory systems; they are measures of minimums
Top-down processing (knowledge based processing) processing that is based on knowledge
Transduction transformation of environmental energy (such as light, sound, or thermal energy) to electrical energy
Visual form agnosia an inability to recognize objects
Action potential predictable rise and fall of the charge inside the axon relative to the outside
Axon conducts electrical signals (long)
Brain imaging recording brain responses in neurologically normal humans
Broca’s area speech production area
Cell body provides for cell
Dendrites receive signals from other cells. Connected to cell body
Depolarization increase in positive charge inside the neuron (-70 to +40)
Distributed representation brain represents information in patterns distributed across the cortex, rather than in one single brain area
Excitatory response when the neuron becomes depolarized, and thus the inside of the neuron becomes more positive
Falling phase of the action potential +40 mV back to –70
Functional connectivity neural activity associated with a particular function that is flowing through this structural network
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 3D scan of brian using the oxygen polarity in brain according to concentration
Grandmother cell neuron in your brain that fires only in response to one person
Hyperpolarization increase in negative charge inside the neuron
Inhibitory response when the charge inside the axon becomes more negative so that firing is harder
Ions molecules that carry an electrical charge
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 2D image of brain according to oxygen polarity and concentration
Mind–body problem How do physical processes like nerve impulses (the body part of the problem) become transformed into the richness of perceptual experience (the mind part of the problem)?
Modularity specific brain areas are specialized to respond to specific types of stimuli or functions
Module each specific area in modularity theory
Nerve fiber axon
Neurons cells specialized to carry electrical signals
Neuropsychology the study of the behavioral effects of brain damage in humans
Neurotransmitters chemical messengers
Permeability This opening of sodium channels
Phrenology mental faculties that could be mapped onto different brain areas based on the bumps and contours on the person’s skull
Population coding our experiences are represented by the pattern of firing across a large number of neurons
Propagated response once the response is triggered, it travels all the way down the axon without decreasing in size.
Receptor sites small areas on the receiving neuron
Refractory period the interval between the time one nerve impulse occurs and the next one can be generated in the axon
Resting potential -70 mV
Resting-state fMRI record fMRI when the brain is not involved in a specific task
Resting-state functional connectivity
Rising phase of the action potential quick and steep depolarization from –70 mV to +40 mV during an action potential
Seed location brain location associated with carrying out a specific task
Sensory coding how neurons represent various characteristics of the environment
Sparse coding particular stimulus is represented by a pattern of firing of only a small group of neurons
Specificity coding specialized neuron that responds only to one concept or stimulus
Spontaneous activity Action potentials that occur in the absence of stimuli from the environment
Structural connectivity “road map” of fibers connecting different areas of the brain
Synapse small space between axon and dendrite
Task-related fMRI fMRI measured as a person is engaged in a specific task
Test location measure the resting-state fMRI at another location
Wernicke’s area understanding speech
Absorption spectrum plot of the amount of light absorbed versus the wavelength of the light
Accommodation change in the lens’s shape that occurs when the ciliary muscles at the front of the eye tighten and increase the curvature of the lens so that it gets thicker
Amacrine cells lateral inhibition
Axial myopia eyeball is too long
Bipolar cells
Blind spot the spot where you optic nerve concerts to eye ball
Center-surround antagonism antagonistic interactions between center and surround regions of the receptive fields of photoreceptor cells in the retina.
Center-surround receptive field
Chevreul illusion how placing colors side by side could alter their appearance
Cone spectral sensitivity
Cones color
Convergence when a number of neurons synapse onto a single neuron
Cornea film on eye
Dark adaptation when our rods are activated and become sensitive to low light environments
Dark adaptation curve (p. 46)
Dark-adapted sensitivity sensitivity at the end of dark adaptation
Detached retina when a person’s retina becomes detached from the pigment epithelium, a layer that contains enzymes necessary for pigment regeneration
Edge enhancement an increase in perceived contrast at borders between regions of the visual field
Excitatory area presenting a spot of light increases firing
Excitatory-center, inhibitory-surround receptive field (p. 56)
Eyes (p. 40)
Farsightedness/ hyperopia can see distant objects clearly but have trouble seeing nearby objects
Fovea contains only cones
Ganglion cells output neurons that encode and transmit information from the eye to the brain
Horizontal cells GABAergic interneurons that receive information from cones and rods
Inhibitory area presenting a spot of light decreases firing
Inhibitory-center, excitatory-surround receptive field (p. 56)
Isomerization activates thousands of charged molecules to create electrical signals in receptors
Lateral inhibition inhibition that is transmitted across the retina (laterally)
Lens the blob that does the focusing. The thing that doesn't work in my eye
Light-adapted sensitivity sensitivity measured in the light
Mach bands Light and dark bands created at fuzzy borders
Macular degeneration destroys the cone-rich fovea and a small area that surrounds it
Monochromatic light Light of a single wavelength
Myopia/ Nearsightedness an inability to see distant objects clearly
Neural circuits interconnected groups of neuron
Neural convergence when a number of neurons synapse onto a single neuron
Ommatidia large structures inside the horseshoe crabs eyes that made it easy to study lateral inhibition
Optic nerve nerve that goes from eye to brain
Outer segments part of the receptor that contains light-sensitive chemicals called visual pigments
Peripheral retina there are about 120 million rods and only 6 million cones in the retina
Photoreceptors cells in eye that can detect light
Preferential looking technique
Presbyopia hardening of the lens and weakening of the ciliary muscles
Pupil pretty muscle
Purkinje shift as intensity dims, the rods take over, and before color disappears completely, it shifts towards the rods' top sensitivity.
Receptive field the region of the retina that must receive illumination in order to obtain a response in any given fiber
Refractive errors f errors that can affect the ability of the cornea and/or lens to focus the visual input onto the retina
Refractive myopia cornea and/or the lens bends the light too much
Retina (p. 40)
Retinitis pigmentosa genetic disorder that results in total blindness
Rod monochromats no cones because of a rare genetic defect
Rod–cone break The place where the rods begin to determine the dark adaptation curve instead of the cones
Rod spectral sensitivity curve measuring sensitivity after the eye is dark adapted
Rods dark vision
Spectral sensitivity rods are more sensitive to short-wavelength light than are the cones
Spectral sensitivity curve (p. 49)
Transduction transformation of environmental energy (such as light, sound, or thermal energy) to electrical energy
Visual acuity ability to see detail (better in cones)
Visual evoked potential
Visual pigment bleaching change in shape and separation from the opsin causes the photoreceptor molecule to become lighter in color
Visual pigment regeneration the retinal needs to return to its bent shape and become reattached to the opsin reforming the visual pigment molecule
Visual pigments part of the receptor that contains light-sensitive chemicals
Created by: Avjoshi
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