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digestive test

test on the digestive system

QuestionAnswer
Describe the structure of the wall of the alimentary canal (4 layers). (1&2) 1.)mucosa(mucous membrane)- innermost layer that contains cells that produce digestive enzymes and mucous to protect the tissues beneath it. 2.)submucosa-contains blood vessels that nourish surrounding tissue and carry away absorbed materials.
Describe the structure of the wall of the alimentary canal (4 layers). (3&4) 3.)muscular layer-smooth muscle containing circular and longitudinal fibers that produce movements of the tube. 4.)serosa(serous)- outermost layer that produces serous fluid to moisten and lubricate the tubes outer surface to reduce friction.
Explain the two types of movements of the tube. 1 1.) Mixing- occurs when smooth muscles in small segments of the tube contract rhythmically to mix food with digestive juices
Explain the two types of movements of the tube. 2 2.)Propelling(peristalsis)- when a ring of contraction appears in the wall of the tube and at the same time the muscular wall just ahead of the ring relaxes. as this peristaltic wave moves along it pushes the tubular contents ahead of it.
Be able to describe the structures of the mouth and the functions of each part. (1&2) 1.)lips-highly mobile structures that surround the mouth opening and function in judging the temperature and texture of food 2.)cheeks- consist of skin,subcutaneous fat,and muscles associated with expression and chewing, inside are layers of epithelium.
Be able to describe the structures of the mouth and the functions of each part. 3 3.)tongue- skeletal muscle covered in mucous membranes & attached to the mouth with the frenulum an anchored @ the hyoid bone, function is to mix food particles w/saliva and move food toward the pharynx during swallowing & moves food under teeth 4 chewing
Be able to describe the structures of the mouth and the functions of each part. 4 4.)palate- the roof of the oral cavity consisting of a hard anterior and soft posterior part. during swallowing muscles drawn the soft palate & uvula up to close the opening between the nasal cavity & pharynx.
Be able to describe the structures of the mouth and the functions of each part. 5 5.) teeth-consist of 20 primary & 32 secondary, begin mechanical digestion by breaking down pieces of food into smaller pieces
Describe the 3 types of secretory cells of the gastric glands. 1.)mucous cells-secrete mucous that coats the inside of the stomach wall and prevents the stomach from digesting itself. 2.)cheif cells-secrete digestive enzymes. 3.) parietal cells- secrete hydrochloric acid
Match the structures of the digestive system with their functions. Match the structures of the digestive system with their functions.
salivary glands secrete saliva which contains enzymes that initiate breakdown of carbohydrates. 3 glands-parotid,sublingual,submandibular.
mouth mechanical breakdown of food, begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates,
cheeks skin,subcutaneous fat,and muscles associated with expression and chewing, inside are layers of epithelium.
lips highly mobile structures that surround the mouth opening and function in judging the temperature and texture of food
tongue skeletal muscle covered in mucous membranes & attached to the mouth with the frenulum an anchored @ the hyoid bone, function is to mix food particles w/saliva and move food toward the pharynx during swallowing & moves food under teeth 4 chewing
hard pallate front hard part of the palate
soft palate during swallowing muscles drawn the soft palate & uvula up to close the opening between the nasal cavity & pharynx.
lingual tonsils masses of lymphatic tissue located at the posterior of the tongue
palatine tonsils masses of lymphatic tissue found at the back of the mouth on either side of the tongue that help protect against infection
pharyngeal tonsils(adenoids) found on the posterior wall of the pharynx.
pharynx connects mouth with esophagus and functions as a passageway
esophagus thin collapsible tube that secretes mucous to protect the pathway and move food, peristalsis pushes food to the stomach
stomach secrets acid and enzymes. mixes food with secretions to begin enzymatic digestion of proteins.
small intestine mixes food with bile and pancreatic juice. final breakdown of food molecules. main site of nutrient absorption
large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes to form feces
rectum regulate elimination of feces
liver produces bile which emulsifies fat, helps regulate carbs and breakdown harmful substances, sends bile to gallbladder.
gallbladder stores bile and introduces it into the small intestine
pancreas produces and secretes pancreatic juice, containing digestive enzymes and bicarbonate ions, into the small intestine
macro and micro nutrients 1. macro- carbs lipids and proteins that are required in large amounts to provide energy. 2.)micro- vitamins and minerals that are required in smaller amounts and do not directly supply energy but cause biochemical reactions to get energy from macro.
nutrition the study of nutrients and how the body utilizes them
nutrients carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water.
Carbohydrates used to supply energy for cellular processes
Lipids include fats, oils, & fatlike substances.supply energy for cellular processes & building structures, cell membranes.saturated-found in animal based products(meats, eggs, milk, and lard) unsaturated-found in plant based products(seeds, nuts, plant oils.
Protein polymers of amino acids with a wide variety of functions (metabolic rates, clotting, regulate water balance, antibodies that protect against infection) found in meat, nuts, eggs, beans, and dairy
Vitamins organic compounds that are required in small amounts for normal metabolism. Fat-soluble: A,D,E,K; Water-soluble: B & C
Minerals elements other than carbon that are essential in human metabolism. found in plants
Malnutrition A diet lacking essential nutrients or if a person fails to use available foods to the best advantage. 1.) Undernutrition-lack of food or poor quality of food 2.)Overnutrition- results from overeating or from taking too many vitamin supplements.
Created by: meekhaley