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final spring '2010

How much of our population work for our govt? 2/3 (2 million people)
People who work for our govt are called? beaurocrats
Examples of beaurocracy post office, police, firemen, sheriff, military,DMV,IRS, teachers (public schools), public funded hospitals
Levels of who in in control top boss- pres, 2nd boss- congress, 3rd boss- district head
Pres makes how many appointments when he comes into office 7000
duties of beaurocracy implentation, administration, regulation
act of providing goods, services, the organization and expertise required to put into any action any policy that has become law. execution of that policy. implementation
congress tells them how to do something and they have to decide how to do it (ex. take over planes) administrative disgretion
performance of routine task associated with a specific policy goal administration
the making of rules by an administrative body that clarify and interpret, its enforcement, and the adjusication of disputes about it Regulation
problems of beaurocracy accountability, expansionary tendencies, difficulty measuring performance, responsiveness, physical integrity, pres. acquienscence, impossibilty of tasks
beaurocracy always gets bigger
doing what pres wants pres acquiescence
how we measure what you know is public opinion
to measure public opinion it is important that the govt makes an attempt to be responsive to popular will, important to discover how opinions form, are they stable and how they get there, and to know how much people know about policy
two views on amwerican public minimalist / challenges to minimalism
the american voter was by: Campbell et al
the american voter included views on minimalist
campbell et al looked at PID / canidate evaluation / issue positions
PID Party identification
how do you decide what is right and wrrong issue positions
the american voter findings on issue positions party is supplier of ques in which individuals can evaluate policy, ppl dont readily address issues, voting decisions are largely based on attitudes, voters are not suffisticated in issue terms
minimalist view on voting decisions they are largely based on attituds toward the party in the long term and attitudes towards the canidate in the short term.
The nature of belief systems was written by Converse
Converse believed there are five clear cut categories
converse's five clear cut categories (minimalist view) 1. Ideologues 2. near- ideologues 3. group adherance 4. nature of the times 5. no interest
clear conception and understanding btwn party and ideologies (smallest group) ideologues
people who actually know their stuff ideologues
have capacity to use liberal and conservative labels, but are unable to connect that to ideaology (small group) near-ideologues
group is described by having ideology by proxy and info instead of conception ... when someone tells you something and you turn around and tell someone else and act like its yours group adherance
"pocket-book voters" huge group dont care what their doing up there. (is my money good right now yeah well then he will stay in) (money bad then he vote out) nature of the times
ppl who don't vot but gripe the loudes after ward no interest
Converse findings ppl have minimal levels of political tension, ppl have minimal mastery of abstract political concepts, minimal stability of preferences, minimal levels of issue constrants
Challenges to MinimalismFirst study done by Lane
Lane takes look at U.S voter. He looked at factory workers who had little views but after speaking shortly with them they had depth views (latent ideology)
Lane found ppl had a latent ideology.
Challenges to Minimalism 2nd study done by Nie et al
Nie et al believed boring election = boring; more ideology the election, more ideology the people
Challenges to Minimalism3rd study done by Sniderman
Sniderman changed the word ques to heuristics
Sniderman believes that we use short cuts in every thing we do. He says shut up and let us do it
Sniderman says this takes place Divisions of labor. which is fine as long as every one is active on something (cover every base)
have problem with minimalist study zaller and feldman
Zaller and feldman believe people are internally conflicted (same-sex marriage)
believe it is not black and white (people have layers) Zaller and Feldman
Voter Participation. Two Schools of Thought why should we not worry about low turnout, why we should worry about low turnout
Why should we not worry about low turn out ppl who turn out are the smart ppl, b/c if they don’t turn out they must be fine with it (silent consent), participation is still enough to make it democratic (as long as it is 51%).
Why we should worry about low turnout participation equals democracy, democratic process itself enhances political knowledge. (once you vote you know how), if you are not part of it, you don’t learn anything (ignorance is not bliss here), terrible low turn-out s problematic
Ronald Putman “Bowling Alone” he says he understands why we are all stupid (and uses bowling as a parallel) we do not participate in grps, he does not understand the part where we use internet for + use (surfing)
Who votes (who is the 60%) old people (no matter what), the core (die hard party members), peripheral voters, ppl with money, people with education
Forces to vote money and war
What is a peripheral voters outside- show up only when they have been motivated by short-time forces
Why do pple vote, why do ppl not vote (two schools of thought) economic or rational school of thought, psychological school of thought
What is economic or rational school of thought (cost-benefit analysis) cost of voting- time (work off), babysitter, gas. Benefit of voting- you get a sticker
What is psychological school of thought believes we are socialized into the need to vote, driven to vote by feeling we have, (feel guilty) (civic participation)
Obstacles (why do ppl not vote) disenfranchisement, distance, registration, if your illiterate, rain (elements), it is Tuesday (what Tuesday, when…), where to vote, who can vote, media coverage, politics is like sausage, ballot construction
What does disenfranchisement mean don’t feel like I make a difference
Politics is like sausage everybody like end result, but nobody wants to see it made (the more we know the less we like it)
Verba et al “Voice and equality” your vote doesn’t mean the same, people listen to money and people who have money participate
What media does? media dictates correct behavior, media guards and sets political norms, the make believe media have become suppliers of political norms, fastest way to disperse info in society, reach large audiences
Media reinforce your norms and you don’t even know
What is public surveillance? makes us feel like we are a part of whats going on and we live vicariously through the media.
Two Games Media is involved in Expectations game,The Gaffe Game
Expectations Game The way the press interpret events in order to set priorities and report significant issues. a way to inform set against a base of expectations.
Media sets up Expectations
ex. of high expectation ruley Julian ( was suppose to win nomination)
Four criteria used for expectation (1) standing a candidate has in polls (2) support an issue or candidate has from party activists (3) ability candidate (issue) has to raise $ (4) subjective impressions
$ sets expectations
reports based on a feeling subjective impressions
def: (a) coverage of mistakes the public needs to know about (b) mistakes are covered w/in the frame of a current issue or campaign (c) the news meda will use mistakes if they think they speak to larger trend or problem The Gaffe Game
The Gaffe Game gaps in media (report mistakes)
problems with the gaffe game (a) media interpret something as mistake and its not (b) when they don't interpret something as a mistake and it should be
What are political parties? hard to define (each state is defined differently)
Where do parties exist? (a) PAO (b) PIG (c) PIE
PAO party as organization
PIG Party in govt
PIE Party's in electorate
ex of PAO campaign workers, staffers (people who do stuff) (they organize)
Ex of PIG legislatures (office holders)
Ex of PIE reg people (they vote)
what do parties do? (a) they advocate a program for govt (b) they help to organize public opinion (c) provide services to the electorate (d) nominates candidates for office (e) operate the govt (f) focus responsibility for govt action (g) senthesize interest
ex of how parties advocate a program for got Democrats - health care
Political machine when they do things for you (ex back in the day people would give immigrants place to live, $, and food if they voted for certain person)
senthesize interest put everyone into 2 camps (for or against something)
Focus responsibility for govt action who do they point the finger to
Three schools of thought (outlook on parties) (1) Washington School of Thought, (2) Maddisonian School of Thought (3) Van Buren School of Thought
(school of thought) parties are bad, parties should be banned and parties create disagreement and diversiveness washington school of thought
who hated parties washington
who said parties divides your country washington
(school of thought) parties are bad, but inevitable. you cant stop parties so you control them (make sure they are in check) Maddisonian School of thought
who said parties prevent the creation of artificical agreaance (it allows the country to disagree) James Madison (the maddisonian school of thought)
he was our countries 1st carl rose (had brilliant strategies) Van Buren
(school of thought) parties are good and the choices they offer promote democracy Van Buren School of Thought
Who loved the ppl organizing van buren
political parties in America have an uneasy relationship with they ppl (it is a partisan battle)
Because of the two parties you can not tell the difference between collusion (on the same side) and disagreeance/opposition (because there are no 3rd parties threat)
What do 3rd parties do? they act as issue groups
Information power
(1) organization or association of ppl with common interest that engage in politics on behalf of their members (2) they propse legislation, give $, monitor votes and issues, give information (**simplify a bill) interest groups
eyes and ears of interest groups lobbylist
who provides information to congressmen (congressman do not have time to do it theirselves) interest groups
Two types of interest groups public interest groups, private interest groups
group has inclusive membership (continuous rather than discreet) (anyone can join) focus on changes that benefit public interests public interest group
ex of public interest group MADD, PETA, Sierra Club, NRA
group has exclusive membership (not everyone can join), they are for policy changes that just benfit theirselves, and have cadillac plans (got taxed) private interest group
Ex of private interest groups unions (LAFCIO)
Unions come up with a specific issue and then dies off
who said it is irrational to join large interest groups. (smaller groups with fewer members will get more benefits and its cheaper to start small group) Mancur Olsen
ppl are not rational to interest groups
Big groups cant cohourse free riders
What press do? (1) public survillence, (2) private survillence (3) screening and interoretation (4) provide info (5) agenda setting (5) priming (6) framing
Whatis screening and interpretation the media decides what is and what is not important, put info into context for us, interpret there meanings and speculate about consequences by suggesting causes and relationships to events (what to think)
Screening and interpretation - (what to think) is done through selection of what to show and what now to show
What is agenda setting affect the issues and problems ppl think about
What is priming media affect the standards we use to evaluate ppl and problems (prim ppl that way-pres)
What is framing media and news look at issues from 1 stand point but not another
Three way relation that exists w/in the medis (1) politicians > (2) media > (3) people (each have different priorities)
Politicians want to inform electoric, set policy priorities and don’t want to anger media which (1) meets rating (2) makes advertising > $ (3) develop political realtionships (food) (4) maintain intearady ppl want >info but want >entertainment too
Biaceys in media (1) spin (2) selection bias
What is spin puts a (+) or (-) slant on reporting
What is selection bias stories with certain charateristics are choosen over others.
public survillence? monoitoring our govt
Created by: fall2011