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P&P 2010 Basic con k

P&P basic concepts

a condition of physical, mental and social well-being and the absence of disease or other abnormal condition. Health
deviation from the normal state of health or wellness. Disease
when the body cannot maintain homeostasis through physiological responses to stimuli. Disease occurs
study of the biological & physical manifestations of disease Pathophysiology
identification of a specific disease through evaluation of signs & symptoms, lab tests or other tools. Diagnosis
the causative factors of a particular disease - may be one or more.e.g. congenital, microbial, degenerative Etiology
factors that increase the likelihood of getting a diseasee.g. age, heredity, lifestyle, diet, occupation Predisposing Factors
aimed at changing the etiology & predisposing factorse.g. flu shots, lifestyle changes (exercise, diet) Prevention
The clinical evidence of the disease.(signs & symptoms, behaviours, effects ) Manifestations
found only at the site of the problem Local Manifestations
general symptoms of illness eg. Fever Systemic Manifestations
a trigger of signs & symptoms Precipitating Factor
additional problems that arise as a result of the original disease. Complication
the probability for recovery Prognosis
heat, cold, radiation, pressure Physical Causes of Cell Damage/Injury
may impair blood supply or Physical Causes of Cell Damage/Injury
affect cell metabolism directly Physical Causes of Cell Damage/Injury
exogenous (from outside the body) Chemical Causes of Cell Damage/Injury
endogenous (from inside the body)eg Hcl Chemical Causes of Cell Damage/Injury
Bacteria, Viruses, Parasites Microbial Causes of Cell Damage/Injury
Insufficient oxygen reaching a body part usually from circulatory or respiratory problem Ischemia Causes of Cell Damage/Injury
Toxic accumulations of lipids or proteins within the cell Metabolites Causes of Cell Damage/Injury
impaired metabolism Altered Nutrition Causes of Cell Damage/Injury
interfere with cell functioning Fluid & Electrolyte Imbalances
Inflammation & Immune reactions Fluid & Electrolyte Imbalances
Actions of cytokines & complement Fluid & Electrolyte Imbalances
Autoimmune disorders Fluid & Electrolyte Imbalances
Cells may try to adapt to adverse or excess normal stimuli Fluid & Electrolyte Imbalances
Decrease in size of cell, tissue, organ or entire body Atrophy
Physiological – occurs with aging Atrophy
Pathological – from inadequate O2 , nutrition or disuse Atrophy
Increase in size of tissues or organs from enlargement of individual cells Hypertrophy
Increase in the size of tissues or organ caused by an increased number of cells Hyperplasia
Disorderly arrangement of cells Dysplasia
Cells vary in size & shape Dysplasia
New growth – benign or malignant Neoplasia
Nucleus disintegrates Following cell death step 1
Cell undergoes lysis Following cell death step 2
Enzymes are released in to tissues Following cell death step 3
Inflammation Following cell death step 4
Possible damage to nearby cells Following cell death step 5
Term used when a group of cells die Necrosis
localized area of necrosis from lack of oxygen Infarct
Created by: kfroel4