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Ch. 13 pers.


Emotions include three components Associated with distinct subjective feelings or affects Accompanied by bodily changes, mostly in the nervous system Accompanied by distinct action tendencies, or increases in probabilities of certain behaviors
Emotional states Transitory, depend more on the situation than on a specific person
Emotional traits Pattern of emotional reactions that a person consistently experiences across a variety of life situations
Categorical approach to emotions Focus on identifying a small number of primary and distinct emotions Lack of consensus about regarding which emotions are primary Lack of consensus is attributable to different criteria used for defining an emotion as primary
Dimensional approach to emotions Based on empirical research rather than theoretical criteria People rate themselves on a variety of emotions, then the researcher applies statistical techniques to identify dimensions underlying ratings
Content of emotional life Pleasant emotions: Happiness and life satisfaction Researchers have defined happiness in two complimentary ways: (1) Judgement that life is satisfying (2) Predominance of positive relative to negative emotions
What we know about happy people no age or sex differences. National differences- poorer countries are less happy, countries with citizens that have fewer rights are less happy, diff. in economic development. High extraversion and low neuroticism contr. more than sex,age,demographics
Indirect model of personality and well-being Personality causes a person to create a certain lifestyle, and lifestyle causes emotion reactions
Direct model personality causes emotional reactions
Research by Larsen et al. to assess the direct model Best predictor of responsiveness to positive mood induction is extraversion Best predictor of responsiveness to negative mood induction is neuroticism
Eysenck’s biological theory Neuroticism is due to the tendency of the limbic system in the brain to become easily activated. Limbic system is responsible for emotion and for “fight-flight” reaction. No direct tests for this theory but, neuroticism is highly stable overtime
Cognitive theories Neuroticism is caused by styles of information processing—preferential processing of negative (but not positive) information about the self (not about others)
Diathesis-stress model Stressful life event triggers depression among those with pre-existing vulnerability, or diathesis
Beck’s cognitive theory Certain cognitive style is a pre-existing condition that makes people vulnerable to depression. Vulnerability lies in the particular cognitive schema, a way of looking at world.
Explanatory style Depressed people maintain an internal, stable, and global explanatory style—Pessimistic explanatory style
Type A personality and heart disease Syndrome or a cluster of traits, including achievement strivings, impatience, competitiveness, hostility. Type A is a predictor of heart dis.
Hostility Tendency to respond to everyday frustrations with anger and aggression, to become easily irritated, to act in a rude, critical, antagonistic, uncooperative manner in everyday interaction
High affect intensity emotional style people experience emotions strongly and are emotionally reactive and variable
low affect intensity emotional style people experience emotions only mildly and only gradual fluctuations and minor reactions
Affect Intensity Measure (AIM) Questionnaire measure that allows quick assessment of emotional style in terms of intensity
Research findings on affect intensity High affect intensity ppl display greater mood variability or more frequent fluctuations in emotional life over time Affect intensity relates to pers. dimensions of high activity level, sociability, arousability, high extraversion, high neuroticism
Hedonic balance and affect intensity are unrelated to each other and interact to produce specific types of emotional lives that characterize different personalities.
Interaction of Content and Style in Emotional Life Positive hedonic balance, low affect intensity Positive hedonic balance, high affect intensity Negative hedonic balance, low affect intensity Negative hedonic balance, high affect intensity
Created by: amac
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