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7Sci Chapter 16 Sec2

Genes & DNA - How DNA works

What is a string of nucleotides that has instructions for a certain trait called? a gene
How many bases code for one amino acid? three
In what type of mutation is one base left out? deletion
What is an example of a tobacco plant with a firefly gene that makes it glow? genetic engineering
As messenger RNA is fed through the ribosome it is matched with what? transfer RNA
What is the first step in making a protein? RNA copying DNA
What is the type of mutation where a base is added to the gene? insertion
How can you use DNA to identify who committed a crime? DNA fingerprinting
What are some genetic disorders, such as sickle cell anemia, due to? a mutation
What determines how tall you grow and whether your hair is curly or straight? proteins
Which item is genetic engineering NOT currently used for? to create natural gas
What does each gene have instructions for making? a protein
Where does messenger RNA go? to a ribosome
Which type of mutation causes sickle cell anemia? substitution
What is the first step of protein production? RNA making a mirror-like copy of a DNA sequence
If a scientist was trying to find out if a certain person had Benjamin Franklin as an ancestor what would he/she most likely use? DNA fingerprinting
What is it called when scientists transfer genes from one organism to another? genetic engineering
What are sequences of base pairs that are copied incorrectly called? mutations
What is an example of chemical mutagens? asbestos and chemicals found in cigarette smoke
What is a DNA sequence that reads ATTGCCGAT that after being copied reads ATTGCCCGAT an example of? insertion
What is a DNA sequence that reads ATTGCCGAT that after being copied reads ATTGCCAT an example of? deletion
What is a DNA sequence that reads ATTGCCGAT that after being copied reads ATTGCCCAT an example of? substitution
What causes substitutions, insertions and deletions? mutagens
What are three types of mutations? insertions, deletions and substitutions
What is a mutation? a mistake in the DNA code
What are some causes of DNA mutations? UV radiation, cigarette smoke or X-rays
What is the function of the ribosome? In the ribosome the mRNA code is translated into proteins
What is the relationship between genes and proteins? A gene is a sequence of DNA that codes for a particular protein
A set of 23 chromosomes in a human cell contains 3.2 billion pairs of DNA bases in sequence. How many pairs of bases are in each chromosome? about 139 million
In which cell might a mutation be passed from generation to generation? A germ cell (sperm or egg) because these are the genes from which a new organism is formed
How is genetic engineering different from natural reproduction? Genetic engineering is deliberately controlled by humans, and may involve processes that are rare or impossible in nature
What is the most likely consequence when an error is made in copying DNA? the error will be caught and corrected by specialized proteins within the cell
What is messenger RNA? ribonucleic acid that copies DNA and goes to the ribosome
What is a ribosome? a cell organelle where protein is synthesized
What is transfer DNA? a type of RNA that delivers amino acids to make a protein
What is substitution? the form of mutation where one base is replaced by another kind
What is RNA? a molecule that makes a mirror copy of sections of DNA and helps make proteins
What is thymine? the base complementary to adenine
What are proteins? what scientists may produce through engineering that will help people with diseases
What are amino acids? what transfer RNA molecules pick up and match up with messenger RNA
What is ribosome RNA? the "factory" that creates new proteins
What is transfer? the RNA that translates the messenger RNA message
What is messenger RNA? the RNA that is a copy of part of a DNA strand
Created by: ndmsteach