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Lecture 30

Ketone Bodies

Name the three ketone bodies Acetoacetate, acetone, B-hydroxybutyrate
Draw Acetone CH3-C=O-CH3
Draw Acetoacetate CH3-C=O-CH2-COOH
Draw B-hydroxybutyrate CH3-CH-OH-CH2-COOH
Which of the three ketone bodies is exhaled? Acetone
Explain why ketone bodies are produced during starvation During starvation, gluconeogenesis uses up the citric acid cycle intermediate to produce more glucose. Acetyl-CoA build up is converted to ketone bodies for use in the muscles, heart, and brain
Why does diabetes lead to overproduction of ketone bodies? In diabetes the body thinks it is starving. Gluconeogenesis depletes the citric acid cycle intermediates which diverts acetyl-CoA to ketone body formation.
How do ketone bodies contribute to the pH of the blood? They lower the pH of the blood causing acidosis
When a normal person throws up, what happens briefly to the pH of the blood? The pH increases because the H+ flows from the blood to the stomach to re-acidify the tissue
What does the urine dip-stick assay detect? Ketone functional groups
Whish ketone bodies can be detected by the dip-stick assay? Acetone and Acetoacetate
Is Acetoacetate converted to B-hydroxybutyrate in a reduced or oxidized environment? Reduced environment= A lot of NADH
Why do methylmalonyl CoA levels drop during starvation? Methylmalonyl CoA is the starting material for fatty acid synthesis. During starvation you aren't producing fatty acids, instead fatty acids are broken down to Acetyl-CoA and the forms ketone bodies
In what organ is ethanol metabolized? liver
What two steps are required for the metabolism of ethanol? Ethanol + NAD+ -->Acetylaldehyde-->Acetic Acid
What enzyme catalyzes the breakdown of ethanol? Alcohol dehydrogenase
How do high levels of ethanol affect the liver NADH/NAD ratio? Breakdown of Ethanol increases NADH levels
What ketone would predominate in the body of someone who has consumed a lot of alcohol? B-hydroxybutyrate
Explain why someone who is drunk will have a normal blood pH and will test for elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood but not the urine. The breakdown of alcohol elevates NADH levels which stimulate the production of B-hydroxybutyrate ketone bodies
Created by: bettyboucher