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Oncology part 5

True or False?Malignant transformation occurs with aneuploidy? True
True or False?When a cell gains or loses whole chromosomes it does not have structural abnormalities? False. It does have structural abnormalities. (page 476 iggy)
True or False?When grading a tumor Gx cannot be determined? True
True or False?Tumor cells that are well differentiated and closely resemble the normal cells are graded as G1? True
True or False? G4 tumor cells resemble the normal cells from which they arose? False. G4 tumor cells are poorly differentiated and retain no normal cell characteristics. Determination of the tissue orgin is difficult and impossible. (Page 476 iggy)
TNM system stands for? Tumor, node, metastasis system
TNM systems have specific prognostic value for this type of tumor? Solid type tumors
True of False?TNM staging is useful for leukemia and lymphomas? False. (Page 476 Iggy)
Name the 3 ways staging is done for cancer? 1. clinical staging 2.Surgical staging 3.Pathologic staging
True or False?TNM system refers to:Tumor, lymph nodes, extent of local, regional, and distant metastasis? True
True or False?When staging a tumor, the letter "M" stands for Primary Tumor? False. The letter "T" stands for Primary tumor.The letter "N" stands for NODE. The letter "M" stands for METASTASIS.
This staging assess the client's manifestations, signs for tumor size and possible spread? (What is this staging called) Clinical staging
Tests are used and cancer cells may be obtained for biopsy in this stage, but this stage does not include MAJOR SURGERY. What is this STAGE called? Clinical staging
This staging assesses the tumor size, number, sites and spread by INSPECTION at SURGERY. What is this staging called? Surgical staging
This is the most definitive type of staging. What is it called? Pathologic staging
True or False?The American joint Committee on Cancer developed the TNM system to describe the anatomic extent of cancers? True
What 3 factors play a role in carcinogenesis? 1. Exposure to carcinogens 2. Genetic predispositon 3. Immune function
The activation of proto-oncogenes into oncogenes causes? Carcinogenesis
Proto-oncogenes are genes that direct what? Early embryonic development
At what day do the suppressor genes turn off the control of the proto-oncogenes to keep them from being overexpressed? On day 8. Suppressor genes can act directly at the DNA level, preventing the proto-oncogene from being overexpressed.
When a normal cell is exposed to any carcinogen, what specific cell's DNA can be damaged or mutated? Suppressor gene
True or False?There are about 70 different proto-oncogenes that can be activated into oncogenes and are not considered abnormal genes but are part of every cell's normal makeup and were important in early development? True
True or False?Oncogenes can cause the cell to change from normal to cancer cells and uncontrolled cell division? True
True or False?When thinking about carcinogenesis, many household chemicals, drugs and other products used in everyday life should be considered? True
True or False?Small doses of radiation do not affect cells? False (Page 477iggy)
True or False?Lung, Pharyngeal, Esophagus, Cervical, Bladder, Stomach, Oral cavity, Laryngeal, Pancreatic, Kidney, Liver and Myeloid Leukemia can all be caused from Tobacco Use? True
How long do platelets live? 7 to 10 days
What two types of Radiation rays cause cancer? Ionizing and UV rays
The incidence in skin cancer is higher in people with what type of injuries? burn scars and severe skin injuries
Barrett's Esophagus is considered to be an example of what type of cancer? Chronic irritation cancer due to tissue trauma.
This type of viral origin is known to cause Burkitt's lymphoma, B-cell lymphoma, and nasophryngeal carcinoma? Epstein-Barr Virus
This type of viral origin is known to cause primary liver carcinoma? Hepatitis B virus
What 3 personal factors affect cancer development? Age, immune function, Genetic Risk
What are 7 Risk factors for developing cancer? 1. Tobacco 2. Alcohol 3. Occupational Exposure 4. Radiation 5. Diet 6. Viruses 7. Drugs
Oncoviruses Viruses that cause cancer (hepatitis B; Epstein-Barr)
What test can confirm or rule out a person's predisposition or risk for specific cancers? Genetic Testing
True or False?Genetic Testing can diagnose the presence of cancer? False.
Genetic Testing is performed on what type of blood? peripheral blood
Down's syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome has how many chromosomes? 47
Turner's syndrome has how many chromosomes? 45
Name 3 cancers that can be "inherited?" Breast, prostate, ovarian
A person with Bloom Syndrome,Down's syndrome, or Turner's syndrome has an increased genetic predisposition for what specific type of cancer? Leukemia
African American cultures have an increased risk for these 2 types of cancers? 1. Lung 2. Prostate
Asian cultures have an increased risk for these 5 types of cancers? 1. Breast 2. colorectal 3. prostate 4. lung 5. stomach
Hispanic cultures have and increased risk for these 4 types of cancers? 1. Prostate 2. Breast 3. colorectal 4. lung
Caucasians are at greatest risk for these 4 types of cancers? 1. LUNG 2.breast 3. Colorectal 4. Prostate
Created by: motlow