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Oncology Nur. part 2

Characteristic of Benign Tumors Cells resemble the parent tissue
Characteristic of Benign Tumors Usually encapsulated
Characteristic of Benign Tumors Grows slowly and by expansion
Characteristic of Benign Tumors Does not recur or metastasize
Characteristic of Benign Tumors Does not casue systemic symptoms or death
Characteristic of Cancer Cells abnormal cells
Characteristic of Cancer Cells cells that serve no useful function
Characteristic of Cancer Cells cells that are harmful to normal body tissues
Characteristics of Cancer Cells Have rapid/continuous cell division
Characteristics of Cancer Cells Don't respond to signals for apoptosis
Characteristics of Cancer Cells Show anaplastic morphology
Characteristics of Cancer Cells Have a large nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
Characteristics of Cancer Cells Lose some or all differentiated functions
Characteristics of Cancer Cells Adhere loosely together
Characteristics of Cancer Cells Are able to migrate
Characteristics of Cancer Cells Grow by invasion
Characteristics of Cancer Cells Are not contact inhibited
Characteristics of Cancer Cells Are aneuploid
Cancers left untreated cause? Impaired immune and hematopietic functionAltered GI structure and functionMotor and sensory deficitsDecreased Respiratory function
This most often occurs in clients with leukemia and lymphoma? Invasion of bone marrow
Clients who have cancer, especially leukemia, are at risk for? Infection
When cancer invades the bone marrow, it causes two things to happen? 1. Decreases the number of RBC'S=ANEMIA2. Decreases the number of Platelets=THROMBOCYTOPEINIA
When cancer alters the GI function it can cause what two things? 1.Nutrition impairment2.Constipation
Impaired GI function can be caused from cancer doing what? Tumors may obstruct or compress structures
This organ has an important function in metabolism and many tumors like to spread here? The liver
Reduced liver function leads to what? malnutrition
Cachexia means what? Extreme body wasting and malnutrition
Motor movement and sensory deficits occur when cancers invade what two areas? The bone or the brain. Or compress nerves.
In clients with bone metastases,does the primary cancer start in another organ? True
In bone metastases, the sites most often affected are what 4 areas? 1. vertebrae2. ribs3. pelvis4. femur
Bone metastases causes what 3 things? 1. fractures 2. Spinal cord compression3. hypercalcemia
When tumors press on blood and lymph vessels in the chest, this can result in what? pulmonary edema and dyspena
Tumors that press on the chest can cause thicken in the alvelor membrane and damage to the pulmonary blood vessels causing this? Reduced gas exchange
These three types of cancers like to invade bone,brain or compress nerves. What are they? 1. Prostate 2. Breast 3. lung
This happens when cancer cells were once normal cells but changed to no longer look, grow, or function normally? Malignant Transformation
This happens when cancer begins to transform by the genetic mutation of the cellular DNA? Malignant Transformation
Malignant neoplasms are what type of cells? Cancerous cells
When abnormal cell clones and proliferates abnormally and become invasive it is known as? malignant Transformation
The process of changing a normal cell into a cancer cell is known as? Malignant Transformation
Name the 4 steps in malignant transformation? 1. Initiation 2. Promotion 3. Progression4. Metastasis
What should you teach cancer survivor clients? The importance of limiting dietary fat, smoked meats, and red meats.
The oldest form of treating cancer and was the first method to cure cancer was what? Surgery
If cancer is confined to the removed tissue,can it result in a "cure?" Yes
This type of surgery is performed when a client has either an existing "premalignant" condition or a known family history that strongly predisposes the person to develop cancer? Prophylaxis
The removal of a benign mole is what type of surgery? Prophylaxis
Surgery to provide proof of cancer is called what type of surgery? Diagnosis or Biopsy
What is it called when multiple needle or incisional biopsies are performed in tissues where metastasis is suspected or likely Staging
Completely removing an entire lesion without removing any adjacent normal tissue is what type of biopsy? Excisional
Removing a wedge of suspected tissue from a larger tissue mass, leaving some tumor cells in the tissue is called what type of biopsy? Incisional
Aspirating cells in a fluid or in very soft tissue is called what type of biopsy? needle
Boring a "core" of solid tissue or making a punch, scrape, or bite is what type of biopsy? needle
Created by: motlow
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