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Oncology Nursing

QuestionAnswer
A group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled or abnormal cell proliferation Cancer defined
Cell division in a part of a body that divides without control Cancer defined
What is a neoplasm? neo=new; plasm=tumor
Oncology The study of Tumors
Cancerous neoplasm Malignant tumor
Benign neoplasm Does not spread to other parts of the body
Wart Benign neoplasm
Hyperplasia Growth that causes tissue to increase in size by increasing THE NUMBER OF CELLS
Metaplasia Transformation of cells from a normal to an abnormal state.
Dysplasia Dysplasia (from Greek, roughly: 'bad form') is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality in maturation of cells within a tissue.
Undifferentiated cells Cells which are not well developed; have a tendency to multiply very quickly, and do not resemble healthy cells.
Anaplastic without shape or differentiation,small and round
Aneuploid More or less than the normal number of chromosomes
Apoptosis The finite life span of normal cells; "programmed cell death"
Carcinogenesis The transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell
doubling time The amount of time it takes for a tumor to doble in size by mitotic cell divisions
euploid The normal chromosome number
fibronectin A large, extracellular, transformation-sensitive cell-surface protein present on normal cells that allows normal cells to adhere tightly together
Gene expression The activation, or "turning on" of a specific gene to the extent that it synthesizes a specific protein that influences the activity of a cell or group of cells.
Gene suppression The deactivation or "turning off" of a specific gene so that it is silent and does not synthesize a protein
Generation time The period of time necessary for once cell to enter and complete one round of cell division by mitosis
initiation the damage of a normal cell's DNA by a carcinogen
Latency The period of time between when a carcinogenic agent or substance damaged the DNA of a normal cell (initiated it) and when an overt cancer is present
metastasis Invasive growth of cancer cells from the original tumor into distant areas
mitosis Cell division by exact duplication
morphology apperance or shape
multipotent An undifferentiated cell that has multiple potentials for maturation and differentiation
oncogene A developmental gene (proto-oncogene) expressed at an inappropriate time, capable of transforming a normal cell into a cancer cell
ploidy The chromosome content of a cell
Aneuploid ploidy The chromosome content of a cell that is greater or lesser than the normal chromosome number for the species
Diploid (euploid) ploidy The normal chromosome content of a cell for the species (e.g., human cells have 46 chromosomes [23pairs] per cell)
primary tumor A tumor formed in a specific tissue as a result of a carcinogenic agent or event
promotion Enchancement of cell division in a cell initated by a carcinogen
proto-oncogene A developmental gene expressed during early embryonic development
secondary tumor A tumor formed as a result of breaking off from a primary tumor and spreading to distant sites (metastasis)
suppressor gene A gene that suppresses the expression of an oncogene
transformation the changing of a normal cell into a cancer cell by a carcinogenic agent or event
Characteristics of Normal cells *have limited cell division*undergo apoptosis*specific morphology*small nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio*Perform specific differentiated functions
Characteristics of Normal cells *Adhere tightly together*Nonmigratory*Grow in an orderly and well-regulated manner*Contact inhibited*Euploid
Cell cycle: G 0 Cell actively carries out function, but doesn't divide
Cell cycle: G0 Suppressor genes(proteins) control whether cells enter and complete the cell cycle
Cell cycle: G1 Cell gets ready for division by taking on extra nutrients, making more energy, growing extra membrane, and increasing amount of ctoplasm
Cell cycle: S The cell doubles its DNA content through DNA synthesis
Cell cycle: G2 Cell makes important proteins that will be used in cell division and normal physiologic function after cell division
Cell cycle: M (mitosis) The phase in which the single cell splits apart into two cells.
Charateristic of Early Embryonic Cells Rapid and continuous cell division
Charateristic of Early Embryonic Cells Do not respond to signals for apoptosis
Characteristic of Early Embryonic Cells Show anaplastic morphology
Characteristic of Early Embryonic Cells Have a large nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
Characteristic of Early Embryonic Cells Perform no specific functions
Characteristic of Early Embryonic Cells Adhere loosely together
Characteristic of Early Embryonic Cells Able to migrate
Characteristic of Early Embryonic Cells Are not contact inhibited
Characteristic of Early Embryonic Cells Are Euploid
Characteristic of Early Embryonic Cells Commitment cells
Characteristic of Benign Tumor Cells have continuous or inappropriate cell growth
Characteristic of Benign Tumor Cells Show specific parent cell morphology
Characteristic of Benign Tumor Cells Have a small nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
Characteristic of Benign Tumor Cells Perform specific differentiated functions (as parent cells do)
Characteristic of Benign Tumor Cells Adhere tightly together
Characteristic of Benign Tumor Cells Are nonmigratory
Characteristic of Benign Tumor Cells Grow in an orderly manner
Characteristic of Benign Tumor Cells Are euploid
Created by: motlow
 

 



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