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Biology Chapter 49

Nervous Systems

What are the three stages of processing information? 1) Receive input 2) Interpret Commands 3) Send out commands
What are sensory neurons? -recieve signals from receptor cells -internal or external -PNS
What are interneurons? -integrate (process) information -CNS
What are motor neurons? -output -trigger muscle cells or gland cells -PNS
What are Efferent neurons? -signal travels from the CNS to muscles,glands, and endocrine cells along the PNS
What are Afferent nuerons? - sensory information reaches the CNS along the PNS neurons
What is the Central Nervous System? -brain and spinal cord -made of interneurons and glial cells -ventricles/central canal filled with cerebral spinal fluid -processes information
What is the Parietal Nervous System? -nerves and ganglia -send out and receive information to and from the CNS - regulate movement and the internal environment
What are the functions of the Motor System? -consist of neurons that carry information to the Skeletal Muscles (mainly in response to external stimuli) -much of the skeletal activity is controlled by the brain stem or spinal cord
What are the functions of the Autonomic Nervous System -regulates internal environments by controlling smooth and cardiac muscles, and organs of the digestive tract, cardiovascular, excretory, and endocrine systems
What are the three divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System? -Sympathetic -Parasympathetic -Enteric
What are the functions of the Sympathetic Division of the ANS? -arousal and energy generation -"fight or flight" -heart beats faster -digestion is inhibited -liver converts glycogen to glucose -secretion of epinephrine
What are the functions of the Parasympathetic division of the ANS? -promotes calming and a return to a self-maintenance -"rest and digest" -lowers heart rate -enhances digestion -increases glycogen production
What are the functions of the Enteric division of the ANS? -network of neurons in digestive tract, pancreas,and gallbladder -in these organs neurons control secretion -controls smooth muscle that produces peristalsis -can act on it's own, but is normally controlled by both the sympathetic and the parasympathet
Explain how the Spinal cord produces reflex movement. 1) Reflex initiated 2) Sensors detect stimulus 3)Sensory neurons convey information to the spinal cord 4) In response to the signal from the sensory neurons, motor neurons convey signal causing reaction to stimulus, also leads to inhibition- opposing r
What is White matter? -consist of bundled axons that have myelin sheaths (make it look white)
Where and What does White matter do in the Spinal Cord? - lies on outside -functions in linking the CNS to sensory and motor neurons of the PNS
Where and What does White matter do in the Brain? -lies on inside -has role the role of signaling between neurons of the brain in learning, feeling emotions, processing sensory information, and generating commands
What is Grey Matter? -consist mainly of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons. -lies on outside of the Brain -lies on inside of the Spinal Cord
What is Cerebrospinal Fluid? -formed by filtration of arterial blood in the brain -supplies different parts of the brain with nutrients, and hormones, and carrying waste away -cushions brain and spinal cord by circulating between layers of connective tissue that surround the CNS
Where does the Cerebralspinal Fluid circulate? -circulates slowly through the central canal and ventricles then drains into the veins
What Causes Meningitis? -infection/ inflammation of the meninges -certain strains of bacteria, viruses -Haemophilus influenza type-B
What are the symptoms of Meningitis? fever, vomiting, headache, stiff neck, light sensitivity, sleepiness, and confusion
What are the five types of glia? -Ependymal Cells -Microglia -Oligodendrocytes -Astrocytes -Radial Glia
What are the function of Ependymal Cells? -line the ventricles of the brain and vertebrae - have cilia that promote the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid
What do Microglia do? -protect the nervous system from invading microorganisms
What are Astrocytes function besides dilating blood vessels, enabling neurons to obtain oxygen and glucose more quickly? -provide structural support -regulate the extracellular concentrations or ions and neurotransmitters -respond to activity in neighboring cells by facilitating information transfer at synapses (sometimes releasing Nt's) -create Blood Brain Barrier
What is the function of Radial Glia? -development of the nervous system -in embryo- form tracks along which newly formed neurons migrate from the neural tube to give rise to the CNS
What do both Astrocytes and Radial glia act as? -they both act as stem cells to help generate neurons and additional glia
That is the Brain Stem and what are it's functions? -"lower Brain" -homeostasis -coordination of movement -conduction of information form higher brain centers C
What does the Brain Stem Consist of? -Pons -Medulla Oblongata -Midbrain
What is the function of the Medulla Oblongata? -control involuntary activities (breathing, digection, circulation ect.)
What is the function of the Pons? - regulates breathing centers in the medulla
What do both the medulla and the pons do? -transer information between the PNS, the midbrain, and the fore brain -coordinate large scale body movements (running, climbing etc.)
What are the functions of the Cerebellum? -develops from part of the hind brain -coordinate movement & balance -receive sensory information about the position of joint & muscle -input from the auditory & visual systems -monitors commands issued by the cerebrum -helps release/remember motor s
What does the Forebrain consist of? Thalamus, hypothalamus, and the epithalamus.
What are the functions of the Thalamus? -main input center for information going to the cerebrum -receives input from the cerebrum and other parts of the brain that regulate emotion and arousal
What are the functions of the Hypothalamus? -homeostasis -body's thermostat -regulates hunger, thirst, and many other basic survival mechanisms -source of posterior pituitary hormones & of releasing hormones that act on the anterior pituitary -sexual & mating response -fight/flight -pleasure
What is the structure of the Cerebrum? -outer layer of grey matter (cerebral cortex) -inner layer of white matter -groups of neurons collectively called basal nuclei -two hemispheres
What are basal nuclei? -located deep within white natter -centers for planning and learning movement sequences
What is the function of the Cerebral Cortex? -vital for perception -voluntary movement -grey matter (outer layer) of cerebrum -learning -also divided into left and right sides
What is the function of the Corpus Callosum? -thick band of axons that allow the left and right sides of the cerebral cortex to communicate with each other.
What does the Frontal Lobe consist of? -Frontal Association Area -Motor Cortex -Speech
What does the Parietal Lobe consist of? -Somatosensory Cortex -Speech -Taste -Somatosensory Association Area -Reading
What does the Temporal Lobe consist of? -smell -hearing -Auditory Association Area
What does the Occipital Lobe Consist of? -Visual Association Area -Vision
Somatosensory Cortex functions are? -somatosensory receptors provide information about touch, pain, pressure, temp., and the position of muscles and limbs -sensory information coming into the cortex is directed to primary sensory areas within the brain lobes (visual, occipital etc.)
After sensory information has reached the primary brain lobe where does it go? - information is sent to the association areas which will process particular features in the sensory input
How does the Motor Cortex Function? Integrated sensory information is sent to the frontal association area which helps plan actions and movements -then if may generate motor commands that cause particular behaviors (consist of action potentials by neurons in the motor cortex)
Describe the distribution of the somatosensory and motor cortices. -distributed in orderly fashion according to part of body that generates the sensory input or receives the motor commands -surface area correlates to neuronal control need for muscles (motor) -# of sensory neurons that extend axons to that part (somato
What does the Limbic System consist of? -amygdala -hippocampus -part of the thalamus
What are the functions of the Limbic System? -motivation -emotion -olfaction -behavior -memory
What are Amygdala? Where are they located? -located in the Temporal Lobe -focus on emotional memory -emotional intelligence
What two process dominate how the brain changes over life? Neural Plasticity- the ability of the nervous system to be modified after birth -repeated activity of a synapse can strengthen that synaptic connection --when activity does not happen at a synapse the synaptic connection weakens
Short-term and long-term memory both involve? storage of information in the cerebral cortex.
What are the properties to short-term memories? -information is accessed by temporary links or associations formed in the hippocampus
What are the properties of Long-Term memories? -links in the brain are replaced by more permanent connections within the cerebral cortex
How do you process information? 1) memory enhanced if you can associate it with previous long-term memories 2) motor skills- ;earned by repetitions, neurons actually make new connections -rely on strength of existing neuronal connections
Created by: daszlosek