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Biology Study Guide

Module 15 - Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
1a. Physiology. The study of life processes in an organism.
1b. Nastic movement. A plant's response to a stimulus such that the direction of the response is preprogrammed and not dependent on the direction of the stimulus.
1c. Pore spaces. Spaces in the soil that determine how much water and air the soil can hold.
1d. Loam. A mixture of gravel, sand, silt, clay, and organic matter.
1e. Cohesion. The phenomenon that occurs when individual molecules are so strongly attracted to each other that they tend to stay together, even when exposed to tension.
1f. Translocation. The process by which organic substances move through the phloem of a plant.
1g. Hormones. Chemicals that circulate throughout multicellular organisms, regulating cellular processes by interacting with specifically targeted cells.
1h. Phototropism. A growth response to light.
1i. Gravitropism. A growth response to gravity.
1j. Thigmotropism. A growth response to touch.
1k. Perfect flowers. Flowers with both stamens and carpels.
1l. Imperfect flowers. Flowers with either stamens of carpels, but not both.
1m. Pollination. The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the carpel in flowering plants.
1n. Double fertilization. A fertilization process that requires two sperm to fuse with two other cells.
1o. Seed. An ovule with a protective coating, encasing a mature plant embryo and a nutrient source.
1p. Fruit. A mature ovary that contains a seed or seeds.
2. Name the four processees for which plants require water. Which of these processes can be neglected for a short amount of time? Photosynthesis, turgor pressure, hydrolysis, and transport.
3. A biologist studies two plants. The flowers of the first plant open each morning and close each night. The second plant's flowers stay open all of the time. However, if the plant if placed so that one of its sides is in the shade and the other is...
3.(continued) ...in the sunlight, the plant will eventually grow so that all of its leaves point towards the sunlight. Which plant is using nastic movement and which is using phototropism? The first plant is using nastic movement, and the second plant is using phototropism.
4. Briefly describe the cohesion-tension theory of water transport in plants. Transpiration causes the water to move up the xylem in a plant.
5. Do xylem cells need to be alive in order for xylem to do their job? Why or why not? No. Because the xylem are simply tubes through which the water flows.
6. Do phloem cells need to be alive in order for phloem to do their job? Why or why not? Yes. Because they actively expend energy to guide the flow of the organic molecules throughout the plant.
7. What substances do xylem contain? What substances do phloem contain? Water and dissolved minerals. Sugar and organic substances.
8. Do insectivorous plants really eat insects? Why or why not? No. Because they decompose the insects and use them for biosynthesis.
9. From a genetic point of view, what is the difference between vegetative reproduction and sexual reproduction in plants? Vegetative reproduction is identical to the parent. Sexual reproduction is similar to the parents.
10. A gardener says that one limb of his crabapple tree now produces normal-sized apples. What must the gardener have done to make this happen? He grafted from a normal tree.
11. What is the male reproductive organ of a flower? What is the female reproductive organ? Stamen. Carpel.
12. Why are the pollen grains and embryo sacs of flowers sometimes considered the gametophyte generation in an alternation of generations life cycle? They are multicellular and reproduce using gametes.
13. What two types of cells are found in a pollen grain? Sperm cell and tube nucleus.
14. Typically, how many cells are in an embryo sac? How many of them get fertilized? Seven. Two.
15. Identify the structures in the figure below: a. Stigma b. Style c. Ovary d. Ovule e. Sepal f. Anther g. Filament h. Petal i. Receptacle j. Pedicel
16. What structure is composed of parts a, b, and c from the drawing above? Carpel.
17. What structure is composed of parts f and g from the drawing above? Stamen.
18. What is the difference between pollination and fertilization? Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma. Fertilization is the sperms fusing with the egg and nucleus.
19. How many sperm cells are used in plant fertilization? Two.
20. Where does the endosperm come from? What is its purpose? The fertilization of the two-nucleus cell. To provide nutrition.
21. The cotyledon or cotyledons help provide food for the plant before and often after germination. How do cotyledons accomplish each task? Before by transfering nutrients. After by performing photosynthesis.
22. Name the three basic parts of the plant embryo and what each gives rise to in germination? The radicle sprouts out of the seed, the hypocotyl develops into the stem, and the epicotyl turns into leaves.
23. What is the purpose of a fruit? To encase the seeds, and disperse the seeds.
24. Name at least three ways in which pollen is transferred from the stamens of one flower to the carpel of another. Wind, insects, birds.
25. Why are cotyledons sometimes called "seed leaves?" They form leaflike structures when the plant is a seedling.
Created by: LiseBrinkley