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Court Case Quiz-APG

Court Cases needed to know for the Court Case Quiz

Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) Ruled that a defendant in a felony trial must be provided a lawyer free of charge if the defendant cannot afford one.
Mapp v. Ohio (1961) Established exclusionary rule; illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court; Warren Court’s judicial activism.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966) Ruled that detained criminal suspects, prior to police questioning, must be informed of their constitutional right to an attorney and against self-incrimination
Texas v. Johnson (1966) Ruled that detained criminal suspects, prior to police questioning, must be informed of their constitutional right to an attorney and against self-incrimination
Engel v. Vitale (1962) Mandatory prayer in schools is a violation of the establishment clause.
Gitlow v. New York (1925) Anarchist calling for overthrow of the government. Established precedent of federalizing Bill of Rights (applying them to States); States cannot deny freedom of speech – protected through due process clause of Amendment 14.
New York Times v. U.S. (1971) Libel case-writer did it with intent to defame-knew it was false-wrote it with malicious intent. Public officials/figures have less privacy rights
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) Government-supported programs in religious schools must have a primary secular purpose, neither aid nor inhibit religion, & not excessively entangle government, religion.
The Dred Scott Decision (1857) The court ruled that slaves are property, not people. (Before 14th amendment)
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) The courts ruled in favor of segregation -- "Separate but Equal".
Brown v. Topeka Board of Education (1954) Unanimously held that the racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Bakke v. California (1978) Ruled that a university's use of racial "quotas" in its admissions process was unconstitutional, but a school's use of "affirmative action" to accept more minority applicants was constitutional in some circumstances.
Roe v. Wade (1973) Ruling that decriminalized abortion.
Marbury v. Madison (1803) Established the principle of judicial review
McMulloch v. Maryland (1819) The Court ruled that states cannot tax the federal government, i.e. the Bank of the United States; the phrase "the power to tax is the power to destroy"; confirmed the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States.
Baker v. Carr (1962) Legislative reapportionment issues present justiciable questions and enable federal courts to intervene in and decide reapportionment cases. The defendents unsuccessfully tried to say it was a “political question.”
Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) Upheld the constitutional right to have an abortion but lowered the standard for analyzing restrictions of that right, invalidating one regulation but upholding the others.
Clinton v. New York (1988) Unconstitutional grant of power to the president -congress passed a law granting the president authority to propose rescinding funds in appropriations bills and tax provisions that apply to only a few people
U.S. v. Nixon (1974) The court rejected this president's claim to an absolutely unqualified privilege against any judicial process.
Swann v. Charlotte Meckenburg (1971) Desegregation -called for busing to make races equal
Created by: Jackie.c.parsons