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Skeletal System

A&P Ch. 8 - Skeletal System

QuestionAnswer
Dense, hard type of bone Compact bone
Bony plates found in spongy bone Trabeculae
Band of hyaline cartilage at ends of long bone Epiphyseal disc
longitudinal bone growth occurs here epiphyseal disc
tough outer connective tissue covering the diaphysis of a long bone periosteum
hollow center of the shaft of the bone medullary cavity
found on the outer surface of the epiphysis articular cartilage
mature bone cell osteocyte
microscopic unit of compact bone, also called an osteon haversian system
inner lining of the medullary cavity of a long bone endosteum
the shaft of a long bone diaphysis
site of blood cell formation bone marrow
bone building cell osteoblast
eroding activity of this cell remodels and expands the medullary cavity osteoclast
cancellous bone spongy bone
enlarged end of a long bone epiphysis
this type of bone has a punched or swiss cheese appearance spongy bone
called the growth plate epiphyseal disc
this cell is responsible for bone resorption osteoclast
lower jaw bone, contains the lower teeth mandible
opening in the temporal bone for the ear external auditory meatus
upper jaw bone, contains upper teeth maxilla
cheekbones, form part of the orbits for eyes zygomatic bones
forms the top and sides of the skull parietal
forms the bony structure of the nasal cavity ethmoid
forms the chin mandible
forms the floor and back wall of the cranium occipital
the large hole in this bone is called the foramen magnum occipital
forms the forehead frontal
forms the posterior part of the hard palate and the floor of the nasal cavity palatine bones
butterfly-shaped bone that forms part of the floor/sides of cranium, the sella turcica houses the pituitary gland sphenoid
on sides of head close to ears temporal
contains external auditory meatus, styloid process, zygomatic process, mastoid process temporal
articulates with the temporal bone to form a freely movable joint mandible
bone that articulates w/ parietal bone at coronal suture frontal
first seven pairs of ribs true ribs
next 5 pairs of ribs (after first seven) false ribs
last two pairs of false ribs floating ribs
lower tip of the sternum xiphoid process
ribs that are closest to clavicle true ribs
depression on superior border of the manubrium suprasternal notch
ribs that attach directly to the sternum by the costal cartilage true ribs
the part of the sternum closest to the collarbone manubrium
ribs that do not attach to sternum floating ribs
ribs that attach indirectly to sternum false ribs
also called the angle of louis manubriosternal junction
should be less than 90 degrees costal angle
rib #2 located at this articulation manubriosternal junction
largest part of sternum, located between manubrium and xiphoid process body
articulation between manubrium and body of the breastbone manubriosternal junction
shoulder blade/wing bone scapula
depression where head of humerus articulates w/ the scapula glenoid cavity
long bone of upper arm humerus
bony point of ulna that forms the elbow olecranon process
collarbone clavicle
bones that form palm of the hand metacarpals
14 bones that form the fingers phalanges
bone that contains the glenoid cavity scapula
clavicle and scapula form this structure acromion
scapula articulates with this bone to form a ball-and-socket joint at shoulder humerus
ulna and this bone articulate to form a hinge joint at elbow humerus
bone that contains the olecranon fossa humerus
long bone in lower arm that is located on the side of the little finger ulna
wrist bones carpals
bone in lower arm on thumb side radius
pointy part of shoulder acromion
also called the shoulder girdle pectoral girdle
head of this bone articulates with the glenoid cavity humerus
contains acromion and coracoid process scapula
bones that articulate w/ the proximal phalanges metacarpals
bone that contains the olecranon process ulna
the radius and this bone "cross" during supination ulna
long slender bone that articulates w/ both the sternum and the scapula clavicle
the thumb pollux
phalange that contains only two bones pollux
part of the coxal bone on which you sit ischial tuberosity
bone that contains the obturator foramen coxal bone
kneecap patella
shinbone tibia
cartilaginous disc between the 2 pubic bones, disc expands during pregnancy symphysis pubis
part of the hipbone that flares ilium
instep of the foot is formed by these bones metatarsals
thin non-weight bearing long bone of leg fibula
heel bone calcaneus
bony process on the femur trochanter
toes phalanges
largest bone on body femur
head of femur articulates w/ this depression in the coxal bone acetabulum
depression formed by union of the ilium, ischium, pubis acetabulum
formed by the two coxal bones pelvic girdle
distal end of this bone is the lateral malleolus fibula
articulates w/ coxal bone to form the hip and tibia to form the knee femur
distal end of this bone is the medial malleolus tibia
the great toe hallux
this tarsal articulates w/ both tibia and fibula talus
long weight-bearing bone in the leg tibia
forms ball of foot metatarsals
the 2-bone phalange hallux
part of the coxal bone on which you sit ischial tuberosity
bone that contains the obturator foramen coxal bone
kneecap patella
shinbone tibia
cartilaginous disc between the 2 pubic bones, disc expands during pregnancy symphysis pubis
part of the hipbone that flares ilium
instep of the foot is formed by these bones metatarsals
thin non-weight bearing long bone of leg fibula
heel bone calcaneus
bony process on the femur trochanter
toes phalanges
largest bone on body femur
head of femur articulates w/ this depression in the coxal bone acetabulum
depression formed by union of the ilium, ischium, pubis acetabulum
formed by the two coxal bones pelvic girdle
distal end of this bone is the lateral malleolus fibula
articulates w/ coxal bone to form the hip and tibia to form the knee femur
distal end of this bone is the medial malleolus tibia
the great toe hallux
this tarsal articulates w/ both tibia and fibula talus
long weight-bearing bone in the leg tibia
forms ball of foot metatarsals
the 2-bone phalange hallux
lateral malleolus on fibula
foramen magnum on occipital bone
zygomatic process temporal bone
medial malleolus tibia
greater sciatic notch coxal
obturator foramen coxal
olecranon process ulna
symphysis pubis coxal
greater trochanter femur
acromion process scapula
external auditory meatus temporal
iliac crest coxal
olecranon fossa humerus
glenoid cavity scapula
acetabulum coxal
ischial tuberosity coxal
odentoid process ("dens") axis
mastoid process temporal
sella turcica sphenoid
xiphoid process sternum
coracoid process scapula
lesser trochanter femur
jugular notch sternum
type of freely movable joint at the elbow hinge
type of joint formed by acetabulum and head of femur ball and socket
type of joint that connects frontal and parietal bones suture
small sacs of synovial fluid that ease movement at the joint bursae
type of joint the symphysis pubis and invertebral discs are slightly movable joints
type of joint formed by head of humerus and glenoid cavity ball and socket
tiptoe position plantar flexion
bending the foot towards the shin dorsiflexion
type of joint formed by the distal finger bones hinge
circular type of movement made by ball and socket joints circumduction
type of movement as the lower arm bends toward upper arm, decreasing angle of joint flexion
tough strands of connective tissue that connect bone to bone ligament
straightening of a joint so that the angle between bones increases extension
example of an immovable joint suture
bones that are longer than wide, found in arms and legs long bones
bones shaped like cubes, primarily found in wrist + ankles short bones
bones that are thin, flat, curved. form breastbone, ribs, skull flat bones
bones that are differently shaped, hip bones, vertebrae, various bones in skull irregular bones
less dense type of bone, located at ends of long bones and center of other bones spongy (cancellous) bone
the microscopic unit of compact bone osteon/haversian system
bone is also called _______ tissue osseous
bone cells osteocytes
3 functions of skeletal system support/protect organs, support weight of body, enables body to move, stores calcium and phosphorus, red bone marrow produces blood cells
where is red marrow found in adults? spongy bone
the hollow center of the diaphysis medullary cavity
inside of the medullary cavity, lined with connective tissue called....? endosteum
tough fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers outside of diaphysis periosteum
found on the outer surface of epiphysis, forms smooth, shiny surface that decreases friction w/in a joint articular cartilage
the formation of bone ossification
process whereby osteoclasts breakdown bone matrix bone resorption
a large rounded knob that usually articulates w/ another bone condyle
enlargement above/near a condyle epicondyle
an enlarged and rounded end of a bone head
small, flattened surface facet
ridge on a bone crest
prominent projection on a bone process
a sharp projection spine
knoblike projection tubercle (tuberocity)
a large tubercle, found only on femur trochanter
opening through a bone, usually serves as a passageway for nerves blood vessels and ligaments foramen
depression or groove fossa
tunnel or tubelike passageway meatus
cavity or hollow space sinus
axial skeletal includes bones of skull, hyoid bone, bones of the middle ear, vertebral column, and bony thorax
appendicular skeleton includes bones of extremities, hip and shoulder girdles
a bony structure that protects/encases brain cranium
bone that forms the forehead, upper part of the bony structure surrounding the eyes frontal bone
form the upper sides of the head, roof of cranial cavity (top of head) parietal bones
sides of head, close to ears temporal bones
opening for the ear, located on temporal bone external auditory meatus
forms part of cheekbone, located on temporal bone zygomatic process
sharp projection used as a point of attachment used for several muscles associated w/ tongue and larynx, located on temporal bone styloid process
forms point of attachment for some of the muscles of the neck, located on temporal bone mastoid process
bone located at back and base of skull occipital bone
large hole in the occipital bone foramen magnum
butterfly-shaped bone that forms part of the floor and sides of cranium sphenoid bone
depression in the midline of sphenoid bone sella turcica
irregularly shaped bone located between eye orbits, helps form bony structure of nasal cavity ethmoid bone
lower jaw bone mandible
bone that carries the upper teeth maxilla
form the posterior part of the hard palate and floor of nasal cavity palatine bones
extension of the maxilla that forms anterior portion of hard palate palatine process
cheekbones zygomatic bones
other facial bones (besides mandible, maxilla, palatine and zygomatic) lacrimal bones, nasal bones, vomer, inferior nasal conchae
air filled cavities located in several of the bones of the skull sinuses
what are the 4 sinuses called (1 word) paranasal sinuses
what are the paranasal sinuses frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoidal, maxillary sinus
skull joint suture
the suture at the top of the skull coronal suture
suture between parietal bone and temporal bone squamous suture
suture between occipital bone and parietal bone lambdoidal suture
u-shaped bone located in upper neck hyoid bone
bones of the middle ear ossicles
how many bones in the vertebral column? 26
how many cervical vertebrae 7
how many thoracic vertebrae 12
how many lumbar vertebrae 5
name the 4 curvatures of the spine cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral
large bump at the back of your neck vertebrae C7, vertebra prominens
vertebrae level at your hips L4
forms the posterior wall of the pelvis sacrum
tailbone coccyx
first cervical vertebrae Atlas
2nd cervical vertebrae Axis
opening for the spinal cord vertebral foramen
failure of the lamina to fuse during fetal development spina bifida
cervical vertebrae that allows you to nod "yes" atlas
cervical vertebrae that allows you to "no" (side to side) axis
lateral curvature in the thoracic vertebrae scoliosis
exaggerated thoracic curvature, hunchback kyphosis
exaggerated lumbar curvature, swayback lordosis
dagger-shaped bone located along the midline of chest sternum
3 parts of the sternum manubrium, body, xiphoid process
cartilage of the ribs costal cartilage
notch between the two clavicals suprasternal notch
landmark at the level of second rib "angle of louis" sternomanubrial junction
large, flat bone shaped like a triangle, shoulder blade scapula
site on the scapula where the head of the humerus fits glenoid cavity
the pointy part of the shoulder acromion process
serve as points of attachment between scapula, clavicle and humerus acromion and coracoid processes
depression of the humerus that holds the olecranon process of the ulna olecranon fossa
bony point of the elbow olecranon process
composed of 2 coxal bones that articulate w/ each other anteriorly and with the sacrum posteriorly pelvic girdle
formed by the pelvic girdle, sacrum, coccyx pelvis
female pelvis broader and shallower than male
male pelvis narrow, funnel-shaped
largest part of coxal bone ilium
flared upper part of coxal bone, can be felt at hip ilium
most inferior part of coxal bone ischium
part of the coxal bone where you sit ischial tuberocity
most anterior part of the coxal bone pubis
largest foramen in body obturator foramen
large hole that's formed as pubic bone fuses w/ part of the ischium obturator foramen
area surrounded by flaring parts of the 2 iliac bones false pelvis
lies below false pelvis, much smaller true pelvis
another name for true pelvis pelvic brim
longest/strongest bone in body femur
bone that is most easily broken in older people during a fall neck of femur
kneecap patella
site of attachment for the muscles and ligaments from the thigh tibial tuberosity
site where 2 bones meet articulation
branch of science that studies joints arthrology
branch of science that studies diseases of joints rheumatology
freely moveable joints synovial joints
made of fibrous connective tissue, encloses joint in strong sleevelike covering joint capsule
membrane that lines joint capsule synovial membrane
lubes bones in joints synovial fluid
ligaments surrounding the joint supporting ligaments
2 crescent shaped pads of cartilage on knee medial and lateral meniscus
cruciate ligaments of te knee joint (2) anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament
joint at the mandible and temporal bones temporomandibular
joint at the manubrium and clavical sternoclavicular
joint at the sternum and manubrium sternomanubrial
joint at the acromion process and clavicle acromioclavicular
joint at the glenoid cavity and humerus glenohumeral
joint at ulna and humerus humeroulnar
joint at carpals and radius radiocarpal
knuckle joints metacarpophalangeal
joint at knee tibiofemoral
joint of tibia and fibula, top of lower leg proximal tibiofibular
joint of tibia and fibula, bottom of lower leg distal tibiofibular
allows for rotation around the length of a bone pivot joint
formed when ball shaped end of one bone fits into cup-shaped socket of another bone ball and socket joint
immovable joints cranial bones
slightly movable joints intervertebral discs, symphysis pubis
example of a condyloid joint jawbone, knuckles
gliding joints carpals
saddle joint thumb
pivot joint atlas and axis
Created by: 1469838250