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CHM 1111 Terms

chemistry the science that describes matter, it's prooperties, it's physical changes and it's energy changes that accompany it.
matter anything that has mass and occupies space
inanimate matter non-living matter
animate matter living matter
energy the capacity to do work or transfer heat
scientific law a general statement based on the observation of matter to which no know exceptions exist
law of conservation of mass mass is always conserved, it is neither lost or gained, chemical reactions do not add or lose mass
law of conservation of energy energy can not be created or lost in a reaction or change, it only changes from one form to another
law of conservation of matter and energy the combined amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed
element composed of extremely small indivisible particles called atoms
atom the smallest part of an element that maintains the chemical identity of the element through all changes
fundemental parts of an atom electrons, protons and neutrons
molecule the smallest part of an element or compound that can have a stable existence
polyatomic molecules that contain 2 or more atoms
compounds made up of atoms of more than one element
solids a state of matter that is rigid and has definite structure, molecules are tightly arranged in a matrix, volume does not change much with heat
liquids a state of matter where the molecules are randomly oriented, takes the shape of a container, is very hard to compress because the molecules are close together
gas a state of matter where molecules are arranged far apart, is capable of infinite expansion, easily compressed and fills a container completely
extensive properties properties that depend on the quantity, volume or mass
intensive properties properties that do not depend on the quantity, eg. melting point is always the same no matter how much you have
substances matter in which all samples have identical composition
mixtures two or more substances combined in which each reatins its own composistion and properties
homogeneous mixture a mixture that has uniform properties throughout
heterogeneous mixture a mixture that is not uniform throughout
compounds substances composed of two or more elements in a definite ratio and can be decomposed into it constituant elements
law of definite proportions (or constant composition) different samples of any pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass
SI units system international units
mass the measure of the quantity of matter in a body regardless of gravity
weight measure of the gravitational attraction of a body
accuracy how closely measured values agree with the correct value
precision how closely individual measurements agree with each another
temperature a measure of intensity of heat
specific gravity the ratio of the density of a sunstance compared to the desity of water at the same temperature
specific heat the amount of heat required to raise 1g of a substance 1 degree in Celsius
Calorie (cal) exactly 4.184 joules (J) Origionally defined at the amount of heat required to raise the temp. of 1g of water from 14.5 deg C to 15.5 deg C
endothermic a process that absorbs heat
exothermic a process that releases heat
heat a form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their difference in temperature
heat capacity the amount of heat required to raise a body one degree in celsius
Joule (J) unit of energy in the SI system. equals 1kg * m^2/s^2 which is 0.2390 cal
kinetic energy energy that matter pocesses by virtue of its motion
potential energy energy that matter pocesses by virtue of its position, condition or composition
chemical formula a combination of element symbols that indicate the chemical composition of a substance
composition stoichiometry describes the quantitative (mass) relationships among elements in compounds
allotropes different forms of the same element in the same physical state
anhydrous without water
anion ion with negative charge
cation ion with positive charge
atomic mass unit (amu) one twelfth of the mass of carbon-12, a umit stating atomic and formula weights
avagardos number 6.022 X 10^23 units
ion an atom or group of atoms that carries a charge
mole 6.022 X 10^23 formula units of a substance. The mass in grams of one mole is equal to the formula weight of a substance
Created by: rpusbach