Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

LHS AP Bio 1

LHS AP Bio Biochemistry Review

QuestionAnswer
Ionic bonds bonds when electrons are transferred; typically between metals and nonmetals
Covalent bonds bonds that form when electrons are shared; typically between nonmetals
Nonpolar covalent bonds bonds that form when electrons are shared equally
Hydrogen bonds positively charged hydrogen atom in one covalent molecule is attracted to a negatively charged area of another
Hydrophobic nonpolar covalent substances that do not dissolve in water; “water fearing”
Hydrophillic polar substances; “water loving”
Heat capacity the degree to which a substance changes temperature in response to a gain or loss of heat
Cohesion the attraction between like substances
Adhesion the attraction of unlike substances
capillary action when water adheres to the walls of narrow tubing or to absorbent solids like paper
Organic molecules have carbon atoms
Macromolecules consist of hundreds or thousands of atoms
Polymer a single unit repeated many times
Monomer a single unit
monosaccharide a single sugar molecule
disaccharide two sugar molecules joined by a glycosidic linkage
dehydration synthesis The chemical process by which a molecule of water is removed from the reactants to join the reactants together
polysaccharide a series of connected monosaccharides
Starch a polymer of alpha glucose molecules produced by plants
Glycogen a polymer of alpha glucose molecules; energy storage molecule in animal cells.
Cellulose a polymer of beta glucose molecules; structural molecule in the walls of plant cells
Chitin polymer of beta glucose molecules with nitrogen
Triglycerides fats and oils, they consist of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule
saturated fatty acid has a single covalent bond between each pair of carbon atoms
monounsaturated fatty acid has one double covalent bond
polyunsaturated fatty acid two or more double covalent bonds
phospholipid a lipid except that has one of the fatty acid chains replaced by a phosphate group
amphipathic molecule has both polar (hydrophilic) and nonpolar (hydrophobic) regions
Steroids have a backbone of four linked carbon rings. Ex. cholesterol and certain hormones
Enzymes globular proteins that act as catalysts for metabolic reactions
Defensive proteins provide protection against foreign substances that enter the bodies of animals
Transport proteins transport materials into and out of cells
amino acids monomers of proteins, consist of an amino group (NH2), a carboxyl group (COOH), and a functional group
primary structure the sequence of amino acids in a protein
secondary structure hydrogen bonding produces a alpha helix and beta pleated sheet
tertiary structure 3D shaping due to interactions between functional groups
quaternary structure structure of a protein assembled from two or more separate peptide chains
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, a polymer of nucleic acids
Nucleotide consists of three parts: a nitrogen base, a five
Adenine a double ring base (purine)
Thymine a single ring base (pyrimidine)
Cytosine a single ring base (pyrimidine)
Guanine a double ring base (purine)
Pyrimidines single ring nitrogenous base
Purines double ring nitrogenous base
RNA ribonucleic acid
Uracil single ring base (pyrimidine)
activation energy energy required to trigger the formation of new bonds
catalyst accelerates the rate of the reaction by lowering the activation energy
metabolism Chemical reactions that occur in biological systems
catabolism the breakdown of substances
anabolism the formation of new products (synthesis)
substrate the substance or substances upon which the enzyme acts
induced fit model The active site binds to the substrate, causes the enzyme to change shape which results in a change in substrate
Cofactors nonprotein molecules that assist enzymes
Coenzymes organic cofactors that usually function to donate or accept some component of a reaction.
Inorganic cofactors often metal ions, like Fe2+ and Mg2+
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) a common source of energy for metabolism, basically an adenine and 3 phosphate groups
Phosphorylation when a molecule combines with a phosphate group using energy
Allosteric enzymes have two kinds of binding sites; one an active site for the substrate and one for an allosteric effector.
allosteric activator binds to the enzyme and induces the enzyme’s active form
allosteric inhibitor binds to the enzyme and induces the enzyme’s inactive form
feedback inhibition an end product acts as an allosteric inhibitor, shutting down one of the enzymes
competitive inhibition mimics the substrate occupies the active site and prevents the enzyme from catalyzing the substrate
Created by: delozierr