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Nutrition & Culture

Cultural Awareness

What determines food preferences and preparation? Cultural Background, Ethnic heritage, religious beliefs, other sociocultural factors
Can a nurse change dietary beliefs? No
Can a nurse help clients adjust their diet within their belief structures? Yes
Ethnocentrism The belief that one's own cultural practices are the only correct behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, and values.
African American traditional foods Rice, grits, cornbread; hominy, okra, greens, sweet potatoes; apples, peaches; buttermilk, pudding, Cheddar or American cheese; ham, pork, chicken, catfish, black-eyed peas, red and pinto beans, peanuts; soft drinks, fatback, chitterlings, banana pudding
Latino American traditional foods Rice, maize, tortillas; tropical fruits, vegetables; nuts, beans, legumes; eggs, cheese, seafood, poultry; infrequent sweets and red meat
Latino diet belief Hot and Cold food choices maintain balance
African American health risks Increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension
Latino American health risks Increased incidence of type 2 diabetes
Associated with Latino American Positive associations with substantial weight
Encourage boiling, braising, and baking in place of frying and stewing in lard and oils
African American healthy aspects Family involvement
African American unhealthy aspects Animal proteins and oils, increase sodium, increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Asian American healthy aspects Plant-based diet, fruits in diet
Asian American unhealthy aspects Increased sodium, risk calcium deficit due to plant base
Latino American healthy aspects Plant-based diet, fruits in diet, family involvement
Latino American unhealthy aspects Animal proteins and oils, increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, risk calcium deficit due to lactose intolerance
Jewish/Kosher beliefs Meat and dairy cannot be prepared together or served at same meal, only front quarter of animal is eaten
Jewish/Kosher No pork, rabbit, shellfish, or scavenger fish
When do Jewish prepare food for Sabbath? Ahead of time, sundown Friday to Sundown Saturday
Mormon (Church of Jesus Christ of LDS) beliefs No caffeine, no alcohol, fast offerings, meat eaten sparingly and in season
Mormon Lives by health code - preserve their bodies and maintain best possible health
Seventh Day Adventist Often lacto-ovo vegetarians or vegans, no stimulants, no pork, no shellfish, no alcohol
Seventh Day Advent. In-between meal snacking discouraged
Hindu beliefs Believes all life forms are sacred, no alcohol, most are lacto-ovo vegetarians
Hindus Coffee, tea, and chocolate widely used
Islum (Muslim) No alcohol but tea is ok, fast for a month each year; consider honey, dates, milk, meat, seafood, and olive oil to be healthy
Islum Similar to Jewish-Kosher laws
Acculturation the process where individuals adopt beliefs, values, attitudes, and behavior of dominant culture
Lactose intolerance More common in African Americans, American Indians, and Asians than in Caucasians
Hypertension Common in African Americans, especially men and in Asian Americans
Vegans Eat no animal-originated foods
Lacto-vegetarians Eat plant foods, plus dairy products (no eggs)
Ovo-vegetarians Eat plant foods, plus eggs (no dairy products)
Lacto-ovo-vegetarians Eat plant foods, dairy products and eggs
Benefits of Vegetarian Diets Lower rates of heart disease, hypertension, non-insulin dependent diabetes, obesity
Created by: ReginaK