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Antioxidant vitamins Vitamins E,C,and A (in previtamin form of beta-carotene)have a possible link to reduced risks of certain cancers and heart disease.
Antioxidants function by delaying or preventing the destruction or breakdown of cell membranes in the presence of oxygen.
Fat-soluble vitamins Vitamins A,D,E,and K. Usually carried in the fatty portions of food. Can be stored in the body. Fairly stable in cooking
Water-soluble vitamins Vitamins B and C. Are not readily stored in the body.Excesses are generally excreted in the urine. Easily destroyed by air & cooking.
Water Is the principle body constituent; most indespensable of all nutrients.
What percentage of water makes up adult and infant body weight? 60% in adults and 80% in infants body weight
Minerals Inorganic elements and are essential for growth and normal functioning.
What are the groups of Minerals? 2 groups: Major(macro)minerals and Trace(micro)minerals.
Characteristics of Minerals Found in all body tissues and fluids, DO NOT furnish energy but regulate body process that furnish energy, occur naturally in foods, and are stable in food preparation.
What Minerals are needed in large amounts? Major(macro)minerals
Name the Major(macro) minerals. Calcium,Phosphorus,Potassium,Sodium,Magnesium, Sulfur, and Chloride
What Minerals are needed in small amounts? Micro(trace)minerals
Name the Micro(trace) minerals Iodine,Zinc,Iron,Selenium,Copper,Manganese,Chromium,Fluoride,and Molybdenum
The amount needed from Major(macro) minerals 100mg+/daily
Calcium function formation & maintenance of bones and teeth, nerve conduction and muscle.
Calcium deficiency Osteoporosis(adults)weak,more porous bones.Stunted growth in children.
Chloride function Fluid and acid base
Chloride deficiency Metabolic alkalosis
Potassium function Nerve conduction; muscle contraction; including the heart.
Potassium deficiency Severe-cardiac arrythmiasModerate-increased BP
Sodium function Fluid & acid base balance, nerve conduction, muscle contraction.
Sodium deficiency Cramps, mental confusion,apathy,appetite loss.
Sulfur function Essential contituent of proteins, metabolism
Sulfur deficiency None exhibited except in protein defiecieny
Phosphorus function Essential component of bone, energy metabolism, acid base balance.
Phosphorus deficiency Rare, but may occur in pt's using aluminum hydroxide antacids.
Magnesium function Bone mineralization, muscle contraction & relaxation, blood pressure regulation
Magnesium deficiency Nausea, muscle weakness, confusion,tetany(rare)
Manganese function General metabolism, formation of bone
Manganese deficiency Reduced bone mineralization, dermatiits, and altered lipid & carbohydrate metabolism.
Selenium function Antioxidant
Selenium deficiency Cardiomathapy
Chromium function Maintenance of normal glucose
Chroimium deficiency Impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes like symptoms
Fluoride function Increases tooth resistance to decay
Fluoride deficiency Increased suspectibility to tooth decay
Copper function Necessary for utilaztion of iron
Copper deficiency Anemia, vascular skeletal problems
Zinc function Part of many enzymes involved in metabolism
Zinc deficiency Loss of appetite, skin changes, growth retardation
Iodine function Part of thyroixn-which helps regulate metabolism, growth & development
Iodine deficiency Goiter-enlarged thyroid glandCretinism-mental and physical retardation of fetus
Iron function Necessary for transport of oxygen use in body, part of some enzymes
Iron deficiency Microcytic, hypochromic anemia, fatigue, weak
Vitamins Organic compounds needed in small amounts for growth and maintenance of life.
Precursor (pro-vitamin) a substance that precedes and can be changed into an active vitamin; for example carotene is the precursor of Vitamin A.
Hypervitaminosis is the excess of two or more vitamins
Synthetic man-made vitamins
Enriched or Fortified the addition of nutrients to a food often in amounts larger than the amount found naturally in that food
Restored foods in which nutrients lost in processing are replaced
Vitamins with General metabolism functions Biotin, Panthothenic acid, Niacin,and Riboflavin(B2)
Riboflavin (B2) deficiency Sore throat,ariboflavinosis,glossitis, cheilosis(disorder of the lips & mouth characterized by scales & fissures
Niacin deficiency Pellagra
Pantoethenic acid deficiency Listlessness,fatigue(rare)
Biotin deficiency Alopecia, conjuctivitis, dermatitis
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) function Antioxidant, wound healing, tissue growth and maintenance, proper immune function
Vitamin C deficiency Scurvy, gingivitis, bleeding gums
Vitamin B12 (cyanocabalamin) function New cell synthesis, maintenance of nerve cells
Vitamin B12 (cyanocabalamin) deficiency Pernicious anemia, macryotic megaloblastic anemia
Vitamin K function formation of blood clotting factors
Vitamin K deficiency in severe cases, hemorrhaging; increased prothrombin time
Vitamin A function Vision, epithelial tissue integrity, growth, reproduction, embryonic development
Vitamin A deficiency Night blindness, increased infections, xeropthalmia, follicular hyperkeratosis
Vitamin D function maintain blood calcium and phosphorus balance
Vitamin D deficiency Rickets (children)abnormal shape in bonesOsteomalacia (adult) softening of bones
Vitmin E (a-tocopherol) function protection of cell membranes
Vitamin E (a-tocopherol) deficiency no known deficiencies
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) function amino acid metabolism and general metabolism
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) deficiency anemia, convulsions, dermatitis, depression, confusion
Choline function maintenance of cell membranes memory retention, muscle control
Choline deficiency liver damage
Thiamine (B1) function carbohydrate metabolism
Thiamine deficiency Beri-Beri, mental confusion, anorexia, muscle weakness
Pt's taking blood thinning drugs or anticoagulants should consume consisitent amts of this vitamin. Vitamin K
What group of people are at risk for low intake of Vitamin B12? Strict vegetarians, 50 and over, and individuals who had stomach surgery.
Toxicity a condition that results from exposure to excess amounts of a substance that does not cause adverse amounts, usually occcurs from use of large supplemental doses of vitamins or minerals and not from food sources.
What is Cellulose? a polysaccharide that makes up the frame work of plants. Provides. CAN NOT be broken down by human digestive.
Cellulose function is to absorb water, provide bulk, and stimulate peristalsis. provides bulk (fiber/roughage)
Ca Calcium
Fe Iron
P Phosphorus
Cu Copper
Na Sodium
Zn Zinc
K Potassium
Mn Manganese
Mg Magnesium
I Iodine
Cl Chlorine
F Fluorine
S Sulfur
What can destroy Vitamins? Heat, light, and exposure to air. Can be lost when food is cooked in water.
What can destroy Minerals? Can be lost in cooking water.
Which vitamin should those who smoke have more of than others? Vitamin C
How can the body make Vitamin D? from exposure to sunlight
Pernicious anemia a progressive macrocytic megaloblastic anemia, affecting mainly older people.
Osteoporosis an abnormal reduction in bone density leading to bone pain, fractures, loss of stature, and deformities.
Folic Acid function nucleic acid syntheisis
Folic Acid deficiency macroycytic (large cell) anemia
Created by: Rednad