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GEO 1305 Exam 2

Texas State / Spring '10 / Meteorology / Dr. Dixon

Water cycles through the earth the atmospheres evaporation, transpiration, interception, infiltration, and condensation
Evaporation occurs if energy is available to a water surface
Saturation = equilibrium between evaporation and condensation adding more water vapor or additional cooling will lead to condensation in the atmosphere i.e. cloud formation.
Humidity the amount of water vapor in the air. Expressed in many ways: vapor pressure, saturation vapor, absolute humidity,
vapor pressure pressure exerted on the atmosphere by water vapor. dependent on temperature and density.
Saturation vapor pressure maximum water vapor pressure possible solely temp. dependent exponentially increases with temp.
Absolute Humidity density of water vapor in g/M^3 changes as air volume changes.
Specific Humidity a mass of water vapor per mass of air in g/kg does not vary with volume fluxes and does not change what temp.
Mixing Ratio amount of water vapor relative to only a mass of dry air and it’s a ratio.
Relative Humidity given as a % of water vapor amount relative to the saturation point. Depends on air temp/total water vapor present. I.E very inaccurate R.h can be very misleading. highest occurs during coolest times and vis a vis .cannot not be used to compare 2 differen
Dew Point temp at which saturation occurs.
Dew point temp saturation. temp to which air must be cooled without changing the water vapor content or the pressure to reach
Frost point Saturation occurs below the freezing point.
Methods of achieving saturation addition of water vapor, mixing cold air with warm moist air, cooling air to the dew point.
Measuring humidity sling psychrometer- two thermometers to measure wet and dry bulb temps. Aspirated and hair hygrometers are alternatives.
Heat index combines heat and humidity factors.
High humidity reduces evaporation
diabatic process the direct addition addition or removal of heat energy.
The second law of Thermodynamics energy transfers from areas of high temp to areas of lower temp.
Dry adiabatic lapse rate -1C/100m(-5.5F/1000Ft), sinking parcels experience compression warming.
The environmental lapse rate Overall decrease in air temp with height, Changes diurnally from place to place, air aloft is located farther from surface heating.
Convergence air converging into low-pressure regions.
Localized convection Free, Forced (mechanical).
Clouds instrumental to the earth’s energy and moisture balances, form as parcels lift and cool. Mechanisms that lift air = Orthographic lift, Windward Vs. Leaward -Rianshadow.
Frontal lifting boundaries between unlike air masses, warm/moist air rises to form clouds, cold and warm fronts occur.
Static Stability Atmospheric conditions relative to vertical air motions, Related to temp-controlled buoyancy, - positive and negative buoyancy.
Types of Static Stability Statically unstable, Statically stable, Statically neutral.
Absolutely unstable positive buoyancy, parcel cooling rates are less than that of ambient air.
Absolutely stable air Negative buoyancy, parcel cooler than the ambient air.
Conditionally unstable air nvironmental Lapse Rate is between the dry and adiabatic lapse rate and the saturated adiabatic lapse rate, negative buoyancy initially, positive buoyancy after saturation.
Cloud types nlimited variety of size, shape, and composition, classes based on appearance and/or height. Not all clouds precipitate, precipitation requires rapid cloud drop growth.
Factors influencing the ELR heating/cooling the lower atmosphere. Surface-based observations: Ceilometers, laser used.
Clouds observation by satellite visible images, infrared images.
Saturated adiabatic lapse rate occurs in saturated air, -.5C/100m(-3.3F/1000Ft).
Growth in warm clouds Collision-Coalesence, -Larger collector drops begin process,- responsible for most latitude precipitation events.
Growth in cool and cold clouds
Bergeron process coexistence of ice and supercooled water is critical, rapid growth of ice crystals, riming and aggregation, responsible for most mid and high latitude precipitation events.
Forms of precipitations Snow- bergeron process, riming and aggretion
North American distribution = Topographic influences: Lake effect snow: Large bodies of water, snow stimulated as cold air passes over warmer lake surface(evaporation), - Destabilizes overlying atmosphere,-provides uplift, snow occurs in narrow bands in l
Cumulonimbus clouds ice(top, fuzzy cloudy margins), liquid(bottom, sharp margin), and mix of ice and liquid(middle).
Hail Concentric layers of ice around graupel-up- and downdraft interactions in thunderstorms,- Great plains/highest frequency, - may grow to large size and cause significant damage.
Rain drop size greater than .5mm.
Measuring precipitation Standard raingages,- Sparse network.
Sleet ice crystals melt in an inversion then refreeze near surface.
Freezing rain Similar to sleet, but freezes at surface.
Rain gage measurement errors Point estimates/ wide variations across small spaces,- measurement errors- wind, residual water, non-level surfaces.
Precipitation measurement by weather Radar precipitation estimates, real-time information.
Snow measurement Accumulated snow measured, water equivalent of snow/10 to 1.
Automated snow pillows convert weight to water equivalent. SWE important in water resources planning throughout western states.
Absolutely Unstable Parcel cools slower than environment, parcel is buoyant and rises.
Absolutely Stable Parcel cools faster than environment, parcel is not buoyant, does not rise.
Conditionally Stable Environmental lapse rate between dry and wet adiabatic lapse rates, air is initially not buoyant, but become buoyant after saturation.
Created by: goldmeg89