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Mr. Wills Ch11.4

Reproduction the process of creating offspring
Asexual reproduction process of creating off spring that are genetically identical to the parent
Sexual reproduction process of creating offspring using the DNA of two parents to produce offspring that have the traits of both parents.
What are the four types of asexual reproduction? Binary fission, fragmentation, budding, parthenogenesis. Genetically identical to parent.
Binary fission occurs in bacteria and other single celled organisms. Ex. Starfish. Genetically identical to parent.
Fragmentation when an offspring is created by breaking off a piece of that organism the becomes a new independent organism. Ex. Starfish. Genetically identical to parent.
Budding when a new organism grows off of an existing organism. Ex. Hydra Genetically identical to parent.
Parthenogensis when a viable egg is produce by a female without fertilization by a male. Ex Komodo dragon.
Gamete a haploid reproductive cell; in humans sperm and egg
Zygote the resulting cell after a sperm and an undergo fertilization. The first cell of an offspring. Diploid.
Fertilization when an egg and a sperm form a zygote.
What are the advantages of sexual reproduction? genetic variation that may allow certain offspring to survive changes in environment.
What is the disadvantage of sexual reproduction? It takes a lot of time and energy to make gametes and find a mate.
What is an advantage to asexual reproduction? Can produce offspring more quickly and using less energy.
What is a disadvantage to asexual reproduction? There is very little genetic variation between individuals reducing the ability of an organism in general to survive changes in their environment.
Germ cell a cell that undergoes meiosis; in humans produce sperm or eggs; found in testes and ovaries.
Somatic cell all cells of an organism that are not germ cells.
Chromosome number the number of chromosomes that contains one entire set of genes for an organism represented by the letter n.
Diploid a cell that has two sets of genes/chromosomes for every trait. 1mom/1dad. Diploid orgainisms are represented by 2n. In human all cells except the egg and sperm.
Haploid when a cell has only one set chromosomes/genes. In humans this results from meiosis and is only the sperm and egg.
Homologous chromosomes chromosomes that contain the same genes as another. Humans have 2 sets(1mom/1dad) of 23 chromosomes for a total of 46. Homologous chromosomes pair during prophase 1.
Tetrad two homologous chromosomes attached at he centromere
Crossing over exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes increasing genetic diversity.
How many chromosomes(2n) do humans have? 46
How many chromosomes does a human egg have? 23
Autosomes chromosomes that do not determine the sex of an organism
Sex chromosomes chromosomes that determine the sex of and organism
Male sex chromosomes XY
Female sex chromosomes XX
Meiosis the process that sexually reproducing organisms produce four haploid genetically different gametes from a diploid cell
Prophase 1 homologous chromosomes form tetrads and become visible, crossing over occurs
Metaphase 1 homologous pairs line up in the cell.
Anaphase 1 homologous pairs separate two opposite sides of cell
Telophase 1 two new nucleuses form separating homologous pairs making two haploid cells
Prophase 2 new spindles form to move chromosomes of haploid cells
Metaphase 2 chromosomes line up at center of cell
Anaphase 2 sister chromatids are separated and move to poles of cell
Telophase 2 four genetically different nucleuses form
Spermatogenesis four genetically different haploid sperm made
Oogenesis 1 viable(usable) haploid egg and 3 polar bodies are formed.
Compare mitosis and meiosis mitosis produces 2 genetically identical cells and is used to make cells for growth, development, repair and asexual reproduction. Meiosis produces four genetically different haploid (1/2chromosomes) cells called sperm or eggs. The starting point of sexu
Why is genetic variation/diversity important? So that organisms are different enough to survive changes in the environment.
What are three cause of genetic variation? crossing over, independent assortment, and random fertilization.
Independent assortment the random separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis; this gives you a random selection of each of your grandparents DNA.
Random fertilization you are never sure which egg or sperm will be fertilized. Because every sperm and egg are different it is like playing Russian roulette with your genes.
How many different combinations of chromosomes can two individual have? 64 trillion, this doesn’t even include crossing over!!
Created by: mrwillsshs



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