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EMT base

Airway Management (Chapter 7 of EMT)

QuestionAnswer
What is Agonal Respirations? Short, irregular, and gasping breaths interspersed with long periods of apnea, usually signifying imminent death. (Agonal Gasps).
Apnea The absence of spontaneous respiration.
Provision of breaths to a patient with inadequate or absent ventilatory effort.. is..? Assisted Ventilation
What is Carina? The point at which the trachea divides into the left and right mainstem bronchi.
Cricoid Cartilage Ring-shaped cartilaginous structure at the junction of the larynx (the voice box) with the trachea. It's only first cartilage ring after Thyroid cartilage.
Cyanosis Blue discoloration of the skin is sign of poor O2 delivery to the tissues. The hemoglobin (red blood cells)takes on a bluish color when it doesn't bound of oxygen. Thus high % of "poor" hemoglobin delivered to the tissues, the tissue became blue. Suppl O2
A surgical opening in the neck through which the patient can breath. Stoma
Nasal Cannula Is the oxygen tubing with two small prongs (for the nostrils) that supply the oxygen to the nasal mucosa. Delivered oxygen into the airway is 6 liters per 1 min. (6 L/min). Delivered oxygen to the alveoli is only 24%. Use-patient needs help with breathing
Non-Rebreather Mask (NRM) (Partial Rebreather). Is using to provides oxygen to a SPONTANEOUS breathing. Inspiration breath contains - 90% of oxyden. Use 15 liters per 1 min. (15 L/min). The NRM consists of: Face Mask, Bag Reservoir, One way flow valve (for rich oxygen).
Partial Rebreather (PR) Non-Rebreather Mask. Inspiration contains 90% of oxygen. Use only for spontaneus breathing. 15 liters per 1 min. (15 L/min).
The physiologic process by which oxygen delivered into the lungs, tissues, and cells, for exchanged of waste products. Respiration
Erythrocytes The Red Blood cells. The cells contain molecules of hemoglobin that bind oxygen to the bloodstream across the alveolar membranes.
The mechanical process in with oxygen (O2)changed to the carbon dioxide (CO2)by inspired and exhaled. Ventilation
Ventilation is the main function of ____? The respiratory system
A system of air passages formed by the nose, mouth, the pharynx, the larynx, and the trachea. Upper Respiratory Tract.
Lower Respiratory Tract includes The trachea, The bronchial tree, The lungs.
The Pharynx is a _____ Respiratory Tract. It includes ____, ____, ____. The Pharynx is a upper respiratory tract. It includes three parts: nasopharyx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx.
The Voice Box Larynx. The Larynx consists of Epiglottis (moves up and down during swallowing, prevent food/liquids from trachea), True and False Vocal Cords (the vibration of it produces the voice), Glottis (space between the Vocal Folds where the air is passes).
The Membrane that lies in the space between the tryroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage. Cricothyroid Membrane.
Inspiration Inhaled
Exhalation Is a mechanical process in which the diaphragm is relaxes and in preinhalation size.
Tidal Volume The amount of air taken into the lungs with a single inspiration. A healthy adult breathes in - 500 ml.
The number of tidal volume and breasing per minute of an adult peerson, is called? Minute Ventilation. The adult person gives 12 to 20 breathing per 1 min. And 500 ml of tidal volume.
What factors can affect the minute ventilation? 1. Deep of breathing. 2. Volume of breathing. 3. Numbers of breathing per min. (quick and slow)
Respiratory Difficulty Dyspnea. The patient not able to breath adequately, resulting from anxious (anxiety) or/and an abnormally high rate.
Anxiety includes Anxiety includes: Upset, Diaphoretic (sweating/cold), Hyperventilation, Tachycardic (fast pulse), Restlesss, Tense, Fearful (frightened), Tremulous (shaky).
Sings of Obstruction The patient may show signs of panic, agitation before unconsciousness stage. THE KEY of your actions is Look + Listen.
The high-pitched sound caused by air passes through an abnormally, narrowed the RESPIRATORY TRACT. You can hear it during inspiration. Stridor.
Infant's rate of breathing 25 to 50 breaths per 1 min. (25-50/min).
Adults rate of breathing 12 to 20 breaths/min.
Child rate of Breathing 15 to 30 breaths/min.
The volume of gas that stay in the respiratory tract during of inspiration and exhalation and does reach the alveoli. Dead Space. Adults have the volume of gas about 150 ml.
"See-Saw movement" Is Paradoxical Breath or Respiratory Distress. It is the movement of the chest and abdominal wall muscles during the ventilation. Found in infants and children.
High-pitched sound that signifies air passes BRONCHIOLES in the LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT. Loud during expiration. Found in the asthmatic patients. Wheezing.
Rales Is the crackling sounds by fluid-filled or collapsed alveoli during inspiration. Fluids in the alveoli cause by: Infection, Hemorrhage, Cardiac Decompensation.
Opening of the airway of unconscious patients. The patient has obstruction of the airway. The tongue blacked the oropharynx. Reposition the jaw would pull the tongue in a correct position.
Opening of the airway of unconsious + nonbreathing patient (without spine injury). Place the pationt in the supine position. If the patient does not have spine injury use "Head Tilt-Chin Lift" maneuver.
Opening of the airway of the patient with a cervical spine injury. Use the "jaw thrust" maneuver.
Suctioning of the airway includes Oral secretions, blood, food particles, loose teeth, and other objects that may block the oropharynx.
Portable Suction Unit (PSU) For unconscious pations. It is the mechanism that vacuum any fluids and food from the oropharynx. Use the power - 300 mm Hg. Use the cycle of 15 sec of secretion and 2 min of look+listen+feel. If the pariont became conscious remove PSU immediately.
Is using for the unconscious patients without gag reflex. Oropharyngeal Airways
Is using for the unconscious patients with intact gag reflex. Nasopharyngeal Airways. Using "A pliable tube".
Protective Barrier Devices (PBD) For a nonbreathing patient. It is mouth to Barrier Ventilation. Putt the PBD on the patient's face, give 1 breath per 4 to 5 seconds (for adults). And 1 breath /3 sec to infants and children.
Bag-Mask Device (BMD) Is a mask with a bag and oxygen. Use for normalisation of the breathing as well as for nonbreathing patient. Supply the oxygen to the patient - 15 liters per 1 min. (15 L/min). Squeeze the bag 1 time per 5 sec (adults). Children - 1 squeeze/3 sec.
Stridor Swelling of the airway. Treat with humidified oxygen, ALS
Crowing Airway obstruction or swelling. Treat with humidified oxygen, ALS
Gurgling Fluids in the airway. Treat use suction (PSU).
Wheezing Constriction of the lower airways (bronchioles). Treat with oxygen and a bronchodilator, ALS
Grunting Respiratory distress. Heard in newborns who have difficulty breathing (exhaletion). Treat with high-flow oxygen, ALS
Snoring Tongue obstructing the airway. Reposition the airway, oral or nasal airway
Labored Respirations затрудненного дыхания. Respiratory compromise. Treat with oxygen, ALS
Apneustic Long, deep breaths with periods of apnea between. Signs of stroke, severe brain damage or disease
Ataxic or Biot's Irregular, shallow and deep breaths. Sings of Stroke
Cheyne-Stokes Respirations start slow and shallow. It increase in rate and depth (deep). Then decrease with periods of apnea between. Signs of Stroke, metabolic problems.
Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation Continuous deep breaths. The rate may be slow or fast. Signs of Acidosis, Brain trauma
Kussmaul's Regular deep breaths, visually rapid. Signs of Acidosis, commonly associated with Diabetic Ketoacidosis (pH of the blood below 7).
Rapid pulse Cause of Shock, drugs, cardiac problems, hypoxia, exertion, dehydration. Treat with oxygen, cooling, ALS.
Slow pulse Cause of Drugs, Cardiac problem. Treat with oxygen, ALS
Irregular pulse Cardiac problem. Treat with oxygen, apply cardiac monitor, ALS
Weak pulse Shock, Vascular compromise. Treat for shock, supply oxygen, ALS, and reassess splinting.
Pale Shock (hypoperfusion). Treat with oxygen, for shock, ALS
Flushed Heart emergency, allergic reaction. Treat with oxygen, cool if the patient feels hot, monitor for anaphylaxis as needed.
Jaundiced Liver problem. Treat with oxygen, assess for gastrointestinal bleeding.
Mottled Mottled skin collor cause of shock (hypoperfusion). Treat with oxygen, for shock, ALS
Moist That skin collor indicat shock, heart emergency. Treat with oxygen, for shock, ALS
Dry skin Dehydration. Treat with oxygen, for shock, ALS
Cold skin Cold emergencies. Treat with oxygen, warm, ALS
Cool skin Shock (hypoperfusion). Treat with oxygen, for shock, ALS
Created by: 100000586490372