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Nutrition - FATS

Nutrition 2 test - FATS

QuestionAnswer
What is a saturated fatty acid? One whose chemical bonds are completely filled or saturated with hydrogen.
Saturated fats Generally of animal origin and solid at room temperature, increase blood cholesterol levels. a fat w/ no bonds available, heavy and dense.
Chemical composition of fats hydrogen, carbon, oxygen
Functions of fat insulation to maintain body temperature, provides satiety, carries the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K., used for energy, provides body w/ linoleic/linolenic acid (essential)
Food sources of saturated fats tropical oils, beef tallow, fat in/on meats, egg yolk, butter/cream/milkfat, cocoa butter
What is an unsaturated fatty acid? One or more places on its chemical chain where hydrogen is missing, called points of unsaturation.
What is a mono-unsaturated fatty acid? A fatty acid w/ only one 1 point of unsaturation.
What is a poly-unsaturated fatty acid? Fatty acid with 2+ points of unsaturation.
Unsaturated fats Usually from plant sources, liquid at room temperature, a fat w/ available bonds, less dense + heavy
Sources of mono-unsaturated fats olive oil/olives, canola oil, peanut oil/peanuts,chicken fat, avocados, most other nuts
Food sources of poly-unsaturated fats safflower oil, sunflower oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, corn oil, most fish oils
Effect of saturated fats on cholesterol? Tend to increase cholesterol, increasing risk of atherosclerosis.
Effect of unsaturated fats on cholesterol? Thought to have a cholesterol-lowering effect at moderate levels of intake in combination w/ lower saturated fat intake
What are trans fatty acids? Unsaturated fatty acids that are produced during hydrogenation
What is hydrogenation? Process in which hydrogen is added to a liquid or polyunsaturated fat and changing it to a solid or semisolid state.
Food sources of trans fats partially hydrogenated plant/fish oils, stick margarines/shortening, commercial fats used for frying/baking
Percentage of total calories that should come from fat? 20-35%
Percentage of calories that should come from saturated fats? less than 10%
Percentage of calories that should come from trans fats? Less than 1%
What is cholesterol? A lipid belonging to a class of chemical substances called sterols.
What is a lipoprotein? Molecules made of lipid surrounded by protein. Fat isn't soluble in water and attaches itself to protein to enter cell and water.
lipids the chemical groupname for all fats and fat-related compounds
chyle products of fat digestion which are absorbed into the lymphatic system
chyme partially digested food as it leaves stomach and goes into duodenum
emulsify breaking up large particles of fat into smaller ones
lipase an enzyme which splits fats into fatty acids and glycerol
gastric lipase the fat splitting enzymes in gastric juice
pancreatic lipase the fat splitting enzyme in pancreatic juice, also called Steapsin. changes emulsified fat into fatty acids and glycerol (end product of fat digestion)
intestinal lipase the fat splitting enzyme in intestinal juice
lacteal the intestinal lymphatics which absorb chyle
Where does digestion of fat begin? stomach (mostly small intestine), where gastric lipase acts on emulsified fat
What is necessary to emulsify fat? bile
where is bile stored? gallbladder
Types of lipoproteins chylomicrons, HDLs, LDLs, VLDLs
what is serum cholesterol? the cholesterol found in the bloodstream
LDL cholesterol the "bad" cholesterol, contributes to plaque buildup on artery walls
HDL cholesterol "good" cholesterol, carries cholesterol from the bloodstream to liver to be degraded and excreted
essential fatty acids fatty acids that cannot be made by the body and therefore required in the diet - linoleic and linolenic acid
nonessential fatty acids Fatty acids that can be made by the body
Desireable level of cholesterol? (mg) Below 200 mg/dl
Borderline high cholesterol? (mg) 200-239 mg/dl
High cholesterol (mg) Above 240 mg/dl
Why is cholesterol necessary? A component of blood/body cells/brain and nerve tissue, necessary for normal body functioning as structural material in cells, in production of Vitamin D and a number of hormones.
What affects blood cholesterol levels? diet, heredity, emotional stress, exercise
What is the total of all processes involved in taking in/using food substances for proper growth/functioning/maintenance of health? (1 word) Nutrition
What is the combination of all chemical processes that take place in living organisms? Metabolism
Created by: 1469838250