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NUTRITION-CARBOHYDR

NUTRITION-CARBOHYDRATES CH 21

QuestionAnswer
6 major nutrients Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals and Water
Provide energy Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein.
Caloric Energy Value Carbohydrate and Protein =4kcal/g
Fat =9kcal/g.
Chemical Components = Fats is Triglyceride;
Proteins = Amino acids = Amino acids
Carbohydrates Saccharides (Monosaccharides and Disaccharides)
Complex Carbohydrates = Polysaccharides.
Functions of the 6 basic nutrient Provide energy, Build and Repair tissue, Regulate body process.
6 May help relieve constipation and reduce the risk of certain gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as Diverticulosis or Hemorrhoids. Seems to aid in weight management and diabetic control.
7 Vegetables, Grains, Milk, Fruits, Meat, and Beans.
Saturated fats Generally of animal origin and solid at room temperature. Tend to increase blood cholesterol level, thus increasing the risk of arthesclerosis.
SOURCES butter, cream, cocoa butter, egg yolk
Unsaturated fats Are usually from plant sources and are liquid at room temperature.
SOURCES monounsaturated= olive oil, canola oil, peanuts and peanut oil
CHOLESTEROL a lipid belonging to a class of chemical substances called sterols. It is synthesized in the liver and is found in foods of animal origin.
-LDL and HLD are type of Lipoproteins.
LDL & HDL Density LDL= low density lipoproteins -HDL= high density lipoproteins
Amino acids building blocks of proteins.
WATER Water Provides form and structure to body tissue. It acts as a solvent and is necessary for most of the body’s chemical process to occur. It regulates body temp.
Macro and Micro (Trace) minerals are needed in much smaller amts than the major minerals. They regulate metabolism, necessary for oxygen transport in the body, bone mineralization, and blood pressure regulation.
SOURCE macro and micro minerals liver, meat, fish, eggs, seafood, and iodized salt.
Fat-soluble vitamins are Vitamin A, D, E, and K. They are usually carried in the fatty portions of food; can be stored in the body.
SOURCES of FAT SOLUBLES egg yolks, fortified milk, nuts, and meat.
WATER-SOLUBLE fortified grains, fish, juices, and melons
FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID
HOW TO USE DIET PLANNING GUIDES
SPECIAL NUTRITION NEEDS FOR Adults
SPECIAL NUTRITION NEEDS FOR Middle Age Adults
SPECIAL NUTRITION NEEDS FOR Elderly Adults
SPECIAL NUTRITION NEEDS FOR Young
Protein-sparing action of Carbohydrates
Enzymes that affect digestion of Carbohydrates
KILOCALORIES Measurement of energy; The more kilocalories in a food, the greater its energy giving potential
Where and How Glucose is stored Stored in Produced by
Simple Carbohydrates MONOSACCHARIDES (Glucose,Fructose,Galactose)
Double Carbohydrates DISACCHARIDES (Sucrose,Lactose,Maltose)
Complex Carbohydrates POLYSACCHARIDES(Starches,glycogen,dietary fiber)
POLYSACCHARIDES o Starches o Glycogen o Dietary Fiber
DISACCHARIDES o Sucrose (table sugar) o Lactose o Maltose
MONOSACCHARIDES o Starches o Glycogen o Dietary Fiber
Dietary FIBER- 21-38 g per day • Nondigestible found in plants. Helps in weight management & diabetic control. Delays glucose absorption, which improves blood sugar control. Recommended Made of bonded glucose Units
GLUCAGON regulates conversion of GLYCOGEN back to glucose, causing increase in blood glucose
• Insoluble Fibers: Vegetables, Wheat, and most whole grain Softening stools& reducing pressure in colon / help relieve constipation
DIGESTION/METABOLISM CARBOHYDRATES SMALL INTESTINE= • Sucrase • Lactase • Maltase
• MONOSACCHARIDES are carried to the liver where glucose is released to cells
• Water-soluble fibers Fruits, oats, barley & legumes Prevents absorption of cholesterol by binding of bile acids & cholesterol in the GI tract o Helps lower blood cholesterol, Ischemic heart disease/ delay gastric emptying
B Vitamins Necessary for the body to derive energy from foods
METABOLISM Combination of all chemical processes that take place in living organisms
essential nutrients Those that our body cannot make in amounts necessary for good health. WE must obtain them by diet
ALCOHOL 7 kcal/g
CALORIC DISTRIBUTION 45-65% carbs 20-35% fat 10-35% protein
PROTEIN Muscle,blood,organs,epithelium
BONE STRUCTURE Calcium & phosphorus
FAT Component found in cell walls
MOST IMPORTANT CARBOHYDRATES Sugar,starch,Cellulose & Gum
SUGAR RECCOMENDATION Less than 10%
Created by: 510756990