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Nutrition Voc.

Chapter 21

Amino acids are building blocks out of which proteins are built, an end product of protein digestion.
Anabolism is a process toward "building up" organs and tissues. An opposite of catabolism.
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder, distorted body image and an obsessive fear of gaining weight.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy used by the body at rest to maintain vital functions.
Beri beri is a nervous system ailment caused by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the diet.
Body mass index (BMI) is a measurement that compares weight and height.
Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating, usually followed by vomiting.
Catabolism is the break down of molecules into smaller units and release energy. Anabolism uses the released energy.
Cholesterol is a waxy steroid metabolite found in the cells and transported in the plasma.
Complete protein is a protein that contains an adequate proportion of all of the essential amino acids for the dietary needs of humans.
Dietary fiber (roughage) is the indigestible portion of plant foods. (insoluble & soluble)
Disaccharide is the carbohydrate formed when two monosaccharides combine.
Dumping syndrome is when the contents of the stomach empty too quickly into the small intestine.
Enteral nutrition (tube feeding) the insertion of a plastic tube through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach.
Essential nutrients required for normal body functioning.
Glycogen is a polysaccharides that is the major carbohydrate stored in the liver & muscles.
Hydrogenated is the chemical reaction that results from the addition of hydrogen.
Hydrogenation is the chemical reaction that results from the addition of hydrogen.
Hyperglycemia high blood sugar
Hypoglycemia low blood sugar
Incomplete protein is a protein that lacks one or more essential amino acids.
Kilocalories are a unit that denotes that heat expenditure of an organism & the fuel or energy value of food.
Kwashiorkor protein deficiency. (S/S tissue edema & damage)
Lipids are a broad group of naturally occurring molecules.
Lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids.
Macronutrient is a large quantity of nutrients.
Malnutrition is the insufficient, excessive or imbalanced consumption of nutrients.
Marasmus is a form of severe protein-calorie malnutrition. (PCM) (the most prevalent & serious depletion disorder. S/S growth failure & wasting)
Medical nutrition therapy a therapeutic approach to treating a with the use of a specifically tailored diet devised and monitored by a registered dietitian.
Metabolism is a set of chemical reactions that happen in living organisms to maintain life.
Micronutrient is a small quantity of nutrients.
Mineral is an inorganic, single element.
Monosaccharides are the most basic units of biologically important carbohydrates.
Nitrogen balance is the measure of nitrogen output subtracted from nitrogen input.
Nutrient a chemical compound or element found in food.
Nutrient-dense foods are high in nutrients and low in calories.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health.
Parenteral nutrition is feeding a person using an IV.
Pellagra is a disease most commonly caused by a chronic lack of niacin (vitamin B3) in the diet.
Pernicious anemia is a destruction of gastric parietal cells leading to a lack of intrinsic factor, leading to vitamin B-12 deficiency. Can cause megaloblastic anemia.
Polysaccharide (complex carbohydrates) made up of long chains of glucose units.
Residue is a bulk in the colon.
Rickets is a softening of bones, usually related to Vitamin D deficiency and lack of calcium.
Satiety is the opposite of hunger, satisfied.
Saturated fats are fats that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acid radicals.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of Vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of collagen in humans.
Therapeutic diet is a diet devised and monitored by a registered dietitian.
Trans-fat (unsaturated fat) can be monounsaturated or polyunsaturated but never saturated.
Triglyceride is a glyceride with three fatty acids attached.
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is feeding a person using an IV, no other food is given by any other way.
Tube feeding is a tube used to provide nutrition to patients who cannot swallow.
Vegan is a person who follows a diet that seeks to exclude the use of animals for food.
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