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GI

CCRN

QuestionAnswer
Phases of gastric secretions 1. Cephalic Phase 2. Gastric Phase 3. Intestinal Phase
Cephalic phase The parsympathetic nervous system controls dthe first phase of regulation of grastric secretion via the vagus nerve.
Gastric phase When food actually enters the stomach. Gastrin is the major hormone; it increaqses acid secretion from the oxyntic cells.
Intestinal phase When chyme enters the duodenum.
Indication of potention malnutrition. Albumin levels < 2.5g/dL and lymphocytes below 1000 mm3.
Osmolite, Ensure, Jevity1 kcal/mL 1kcal/mL
Normally patients at rest require how many calories? 25 kcal/kg/day
Achalasia refers to Failure of the gastroesophageal sphincter
Total gastrectomy would cause the patient to lose which function? Vitamin B12 synthesis
Which substance will increase the production of hydrochloric acid? HISTAMINE
Cimetidine or ranitidine acts to reduce stress ulcers by inhibiting the production of which substance? HISTAMINE
What is the purpose of the intrinsic factor, produced by parietal cells in the stomach? PROMOTES ABSORPTION OF VIT. B12.
The normal pH of the stomach falls within which of the following ranges? 1 to 3
In which part of the GI system is pepsinogen initially produced? STOMACH
Which of the following is a function of chelecystokinin? INHIBITS GASTRIC EMPTYING
A vagotomy, through the removal of parasympathetic stimulation, can reduce the secretion of hydrochloric acid by which mechanism? ELIMINATION FO THE CEPHALIC PHASE OF GASTRIC SECRETION.
Approximately how many calories are in a gram of glucose? 4 kcal
Approximately how many calories are in a gram of fat? 9 kcal
Approximately how many calories are in a gram of protein? 4 kcal
Which enzyme is active in the digestion of proteins? TRYPSIN
Which enzyme is active in the digestio of fats? LIPASE
Which enzyme is active in the digestion of carbohydrates? AMYLASE
Emulsification of fat occurs because of which substance? BILE
Increased colonic motility is produced by? PARASYMPATHETIC STIMULATION
All venous blood from the intestines eventually drains into which vein? PORTAL
Which substance causes contraction of the gallbladder? SECRETIN
What are measured as part of the routine protein assessment during an analysis of nutritional status? TOTAL LYMPHOCYTES AND ALBUMIN
What is thought to be the most common cause of stess ulcers? ISCHEMIA
Esophageal varices are the result of increases in which vascular parameters? PORTAL VENOUS PRESSURE
Portacaval shunts work to decrease bleeding from esophageal varices by which mechanism? DECREASING PORTAL VENOUS PRESSURE
What are some complications of the esophageal balloon treament? 1. TRACHEAL OCCLUSION 2. ESOPHAGEAL NECROSIS 3. ESOPHAGEAL RUPTURE
Asterixis is regarded as a sign of the development of which condition? HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY
Which of the following electrolytes is frequently lost with pancreatitis? CALCIUM
What is the most common cause of intestinal perforation? APPENDICITIS
Direct bilirubin is: 1. BOUND WITH GLUCURONIC ACID IN THE LIVER. 2. A WATER-SOLUBLE BILIRUBIN 3. A CONJUGATED BILIRUBIN
Indirect bilirubin is: FAT-SOLUBLE AND UNCONJUGATED
The most common cause of portal hypertension is: CIRRHOSIS
Cullen's sign 1. BLUISH, ECCHYMOTIC AREA AROUND THE UMBILICUS. 2. PRESENTS WHEN BLOOD INFILTRATES THE ABDOMINAL WALL.
Grey-Turners sign 1. ECCHYMOSIS OVER THE FLANK AREA 2. PRESENTS DUE TO RETROPERITONEAL BLEEDING
Coopernail's sign 1. ECCHYMOSIS IN THE GROIN AREA. 2. PRESENTS DUE TO BLLEDING IN THE PELVIC AREA
Kehr's sign 1. PAIN IN THE LEFT SHOULDER. 2. PRESENTS DUE TO A RUPTURED SPLEEN.
Halstead's sign 1. MARBLED APPEARANCE ACCROSS THE ABDOMEN 2. SOMETIMES SEEN IN ABD TRAUMA.
Incubation period for hepatitis B 6 to 9 weeks
The normal pressure inflation range for an esophageal balloon to tmponade is: 20 to 45 mm/Hg
The normal portal pressure is: less than 10 mm/Hg
ASTERIXIS A TREMOR OF THE WRIST WHEN THE WRIST IS EXTENDED.
Created by: nerdismart