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NUTRITION CH 11

Diet during Pregnancy & Lactation

QuestionAnswer
What is the average weight gain for normal women during pregnancy? 25-35 lbs
What is the average weight gain for underweight women? 28-40 lbs
How many weight is gained during the 1st trimester? 2-4 lbs
How much weight is gained lb/week during 2nd & 3rd trimester? 1 pound/week
How many additional calories are need during 2nd & 3rd trimester? +300 calories
What supplement decreases the risk of brain and spinal cord defects prior to conception? Folic acid (vitamin B9 or folacin; water soluble)
Protein intake increases how much by a pregnant woman over 25? 20%
Protein intake increases how much for pregnant adolescent? 25%
What can excess Vitamin A cause during pregnancy? Do not increase Vitamin A as it can cause birth defects.
Vitamin D requirement during pregnancy? 10 units
Vitamin E requirement during pregnancy? 5 units
Vitamin K requirement during pregnancy? 75-90 units depending upon age.
TRUE or FALSE: Requirements for all the water-soluble vitamins, Vitamins B & C, Calcium, Iron, Zinc, Iodine, and selenium are increased during pregnancy. TRUE
TRUE OR FALSE: Over-the-counter nutrient supplements may be harmful to the fetus. TRUE
TRUE OR FALSE: Iron supplements are commonly prescribed. TRUE
What are the concerns during pregnancy? - nausea<br> - constipation<br> - heartburn<br> - excessive weight gain <br> - pregnancy-induced hypertension<br> - pica<br> - anemia<br> - alcohol, caffeine, drugs & tobacco
NAUSEA "Morning sickness" occurs most commonly in 1st trimester.<br><br> Suggestions:<br> - eat dry crackers or dry toast before rising<br> - eat small, frequent meals<br> - avoid food with offensive odors<br> - avoid liquids at mealtime
HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM occurs when the nausea becomes so severe that it is life threatening. <br><br> may require hospitalization & parenteral nutrition.
CONSTIPATION caused by relaxed gastrointestinal tract due to progesterone.<br><br> Suggestions:<br> - Eat High fiber diet - participate in daily exercise - drink 8 glasses of water per day
HEARTBURN Caused by pressure on the stomach by the growing fetus & relaxation of the cardiac sphincter.<br> Suggestions: - eat small, frequent meals - avoid spicy or greasy food, liquids w/ meals - wait at least 1hr after eating to lie down & 2hrs before exerci
PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION aka PRE-ECLAMPSIA or TOXEMIA; characterized by HBP, presence of protein in urine, and edema in 3rd trimester.<br><br> May progress into eclamptic stage w/ convulsion, coma, & possible death of mother & infant.
High risk for Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension? during 1st trimester, multifetal pregnancies, morbidly obese mothers, or those with inadequate diets, especially protein deficient.
PICA craving for nonfood. (i.e. starch, clay(soil), or ice)
ANEMIA condition caused by an insufficiency of RBC, hemoglobin or blood volume.
Anemia causes? weakness, fatigue, poor appetite, and pallor.
Most common anemia? Iron-deficiency anemia
What vitamin deficiency can lead to Megaloblastic anemia? Folate deficiency (vitamin B9)
FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME <BR>(FAS) Characterized by a growth deficiency, central nervous system dysfunction, microcephaly (small head/brain), and other physical characteristics.
FETAL ALCOHOL EFFECT causes fewer physicial defects but many behavioral and psychosocial problems.
Drugs derived from which vitamin can cause fetal malformations and spontaneous abortions? vitamin A
What substance is associated with low birth weights, sudden infant death syndrome(SIDS), and fetal death Tobacco
What factors affect a pregnant woman with diabetes? diabetes type and number of insulin injections required.
GESTATIONAL DIABETES occurs during pregnancy and disappears after the infant is born. Note: predisposed to type II.
T or F: insulin is used during pregnancy to control any type of diabetes. TRUE
T or F: Oral hypoglycemic agents have been used during pregnancy. FALSE
Risks for pregnant adolescence Pregnancy-induced hypertension and premature delivery
T or F: Recommended that no supplemental feedings be given until feeding routine is established. true
Human milk is formulated to meet the nutrient needs of infants for how long? first 6 months of life
T or F: Some babies are allergic to their mother's milk. FALSE
T or F: Human milk contains at least 100 ingredients not found in formula. TRUE
Benefits of breastfeeding for the infant - lower incidence of ear infections, diarrhea, allergies and hospital admissions <br> - receive antibodies from breast milk <br> - promotes jaw development - decreases risk of obesity later in life - facilitates bonding
Benefits of breastfeeding for Mother - lose weight - stimulates uterus to contract to original size - economical - opportunity for resting - milk is always right temperature & readily available.
Nutrition requirement during lactation - increase 500 calories/day - fluid intake should replace fluids used for milk production.
Nutrition concerns during lactation - chemicals can pass into mother's milk - check with obstetrician before using any meds or nutrient supplement - caffeine may make an infant irritable
Created by: alogan