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Ecosystems

6th Weeks Cummulative Test Review

TermDefinition
ecosystem all the organisms that live in an area together with all the nonliving factors of the environment; they are named for a dominant feature
ecology the study of ecosystems
species a group of organisms that can mate and produce offspring
population all the organisms of the same species at the same place and time
community many populations sharing the same environment
limiting factors things that restrict how many organisms can live in a certain environment; food, water, light, living space
habitat the place where an organism lives
niche the special role an organism plays within its habitat
competition when one or more individual or population tries to use the same resource; only the organisms that get what they need survive
producer an organism that creates its own food, usually through photosynthesis
consumer an organism that can't make its own food; gets its food from eating either producers or other consumers
decomposers eats the remains or wastes of other organisms; examples - fungi and bacteria - the last step in any food chain
food chain traces the path of energy at is moves from one organism to the next in an ecosystem
food web a system of several overlapping food chains
biotic the living factors in an ecosystem
abiotic the non-living factors in an ecosystem
photosynthesis process producers use to make their own chemical energy from the sun
sun the first step in any food chain
cell the basic unit of all living things
multi-cellular an organism composed of more than one cell
uni-cellular an organism composed of only one cell
microscope tool used for observing specimens too small to be seen with the naked eye
prokaryotic a cell without membrane bound internal structures; e.g. - no nucleus
eukaryotic a cell with membrane bound internal structures such as a nucleus
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material in a cell; the brains of the cell
nucleus the membrane bound organism in a cell that contains the DNA
heterotrophic an organism that consumes other organisms to get the energy it needs to live
autotrophic an organism that makes its own food, usually through photosynthesis
asexual reproduction requires genetic material from only one parent
sexual reproduction requires genetic material from two parents
bacteria a prokaryotic domain; organisms in this domain are found everywhere
archaea a prokaryotic domain; organisms in this domain live only in extreme environments
domain the largest group in the classification system; there are three - archaea, bacteria and eukarya
animalia a eukarya kingdom; animals are multi-cellular, reproduce sexually, have cell membranes and heterotrophic
kingdom the second level in the classification hierarchy, there are six
classification heirarchy the system for organizing all living things; domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
plantae a eukarya kingdom; plants are multi-cellular, reproduce sexually, have cell walls and are autotrophic
protista a eukarya kingdom; most protists are unicellular, reproduce asexually, have cell membranes. they can be either autotrophic or heterotrophic
fungi a eukarya kingdom; fungi have cell walls, are heterotrophic, most reproduce asexually. they can be uni or multi-cellular
inner core the center layer of the Earth is the most dense, has the highest pressure and the highest temperature; high pressure keeps it solid
outer core surrounds the inner core of the Earth; it has less pressure and temperature than the inner core and is liquid
mantle surrounds the outer core of the Earth; in a semi-solid state; gooey
crust the outermost layer of the Earth; can be either ocean or continental
convection currents these currents in the mantle are caused by temperature differences between the outer core and the crust; responsible for plate tectonics
convergent boundary a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
transform boundary a plate boundary where two plates slide past each other
divergent boundary a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
trench a deep chasm formed at ocean to continental convergent boundaries
subduction zone the area where one convergent plate goes beneath the other
tectonic plates large sections of the Earth's crust that are constantly in motion due to convection currents in the mantle
volcanic mountains formed at ocean to continental convergent boundaries
sedimentary rock formed by cementing and compacting of sediments
metamorphic rock new rock created when igneous or sedimentary rock is subjected to great heat and pressure
igneous rock rock formed from cooling magma or lava
hardness scale created by MOHS; used to measure the hardness of minerals
physical properties of minerals the four used to identify are color, luster, hardness and streak
mid-ocean ridge a land feature formed at underwater divergent boundaries
ring of fire the area around the Pacific tectonic plate that has many volcanoes due to boundary activity
Created by: bwilliamsscience