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Psych 100B

2nd Midterm

Trait Taxonomies Systems for determining the most important differences in personality, usually by psychometric tests
Psychometrics: Self-Report People describe themselves in interviews or questionnaires
Psychometrics: Observer Report Person is rated by others who have relevant information (friends, family, trained observer)
Psychometrics: Actual Behavior A concrete indicator that can be measured objectively (speed of conversation, heart rate etc..)
Factor Analysis Mathematical procedure used to analyze the correlations among a large number of variables.
16 Personality Factor (16PF) A self-report inventory developed by Cattell and colleagues to measure 16 primary personality factors
Source Traits Represent the underlying causes of behavior
Surface Traits Consistent behavioral tendencies typically observed in people (interrupting)
Extroversion How outgoing and sociable a person is
Neuroticism How anxious/nervous/worried a person is
Psychoticism How irresponsible and nasty towards others a person is
Eysenck's 3 Dimensions Extroversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism
The Big Five Personality dimensions: extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness.
Agency Getting ahead, achieving more than others do
Communion Getting along, fitting in with and supporting others
Agreeableness Sympathetic, warm, trusting
Conscientiousness Ethical, Dependable, productive, purposful
Openness Nonconforming, showing unusually broad interests, imaginative
2 Dimensions of Interpersonal Behaviour? 1. Agency 2. Communion
Idiographic Allport's approach to study peoples personalities. Cardinal, Central and Secondary Traits.
Cardinal Traits Personality traits that dominate a persons life. (Passion to serve god or accumulate wealth)
Central Traits 5-10 descriptive traits that you would use to describe someone you know. (friendly, trustworthy)
Secondary Traits Less obvious characteristics of a person that are only occasionally noticable. (grouchiness in the morning)
Self-Report Questionnaires Personality tests that ask the person of interest how they think, act, feel.
NEO-PI-R Self-report test, measures the Big Five dimensions
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Widely used self-report test for assessing personality traits and for diagnosing psychological problems
Socially Desirable Responding The tendency to describe ourselves as having positive, normal trails
Projective Tests People are asked to interpret an ambiguous stimuli.
Rorscach Test A projective test that requires people to interpret an inkblot
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) A projective personality test that requires people to make up stories about characters in a picture
Personality Profiling Guessing the personality of a person based on indirect evidence. (Eating habits, room arrangement)
Psychodynamic Theory Freud's theory that much of behaviour is governed by unconscious forces.
Conscious Mind The contents of awareness. Things that occupy the focus of your current attention
Preconscious Mind The part of the mind that contains all memories and thoughts you are not thinking of at the moment but could easily recall.
Unconscious Mind Houses all memories, urges and conflicts that are beyond awareness.
Manifest Content Parts of a dream you remember
Latent Content A dreams true conscious meaning
id Freud. The portion of personality that seeks immediate satisfaction of urges, particularly those related to sex and aggression, without concern for morals.
Life Instinct The desire to explore and enjoy life's pleasures. especially sex.
Death Instinct Required to explain suicide and other self-destructive behaviour.
Superego "Moral Arm" Component of our personality that deters us from breaking moral customs.
Ego Acts as a mediator, encourages you to act with reason and helps to conform with the requirements of the world.
Defence Mechanisms Unconscious processes used by the ego to ward off the anxiety that comes from conflicts between the superego and the id
Denial Defence Mechanism. The refusal to accept an external fact because it causes anxiety
Repression Defence Mechanism. Burying anxiety-producing thoughts and feelings in the unconscious.
Projection Defence Mechanism. Blaming others for you unacceptable feelings or desires. (Woman at work)
Reaction Formation Defence Mechanism. Behaving the opposite of what you really desire.
Sublimation Defence Mechanism. Unacceptable impulses are channeled into socially acceptable activities (hockey)
Oral Stage First year of life, pleasure from sucking on, of having things in mouth
Anal Stage Second Year of life, pleasure in defecation
Phallic Stage Ages 3-5, pleasure from self stimulation of the sexual organs
Oedipus Complex Boys become attracted to their mother while seeing their father as a threat
Electra Complex Girls blame their mother for their lack of a penis
Latency Period Ages 5-puberty, Stage where sexual feelings are suppressed
Genital Stage Final Stage, Sexual feelings develop for members of the opposite sex
Collective Unconscious Carl Jung. Certain kinds of universal symbols and ideas are present in the unconscious of all people.
Humanistic Psychology An approach that focuses on peoples unique capacity for choice, responsibility and growth. (We can overcome our urges and chose whats right)
Self-Concept Set of perceptions that we hold about our abilities and characteristics. (What does it mean to be me)
Positive Regard We value what others think of us and constantly seek others approval, love and companionship
Conditions of Worth The expectations or standards that we believe others place on us
Incongruence A discrepancy between the image we hold of ourselves (self-concept) and the sum of all our experiences.
Self-Actualization The ingrained desire to reach our true potential as human beings
Peak Experiences Emotional, often religious experiences in which their place in a unified universe becomes clear and meaningful
Cognitive-Behavioural Theories Suggests it is reward-punishment experiences and interpretations of those experiences that determine personality growth and development
Social Learning Theory The most important personality traits come from modelling or copying the bahaviour of others
Locus of Control The amount of control a person feels they have over the environment
Self-efficacy The beliefs that we hold about our own ability to perform a task or accomplish a goal
Reciprocal Determinism Beliefs, behaviour and the environment interact to shape what is learned from experience. (If you avoid parties, you are never going to be rewarded)
Person-Situation Debate A controversial debate centering on whether people really do behave consistently across situations
Self-Monitoring The tendency to alter your behaviour to fir the situation at hand
Social Psychology The study of how people think about, influence and relate to others
Social Cognition The study of how people use cognitive processes, such as perception, memory, thought and emotion to make sense of other people as well as themselves
Self-fulfilling Prophecy Effect When our expectations about the actions or another person actually lead that person to behave in the expected way
Prejudice An unrealistic negative evaluation of a group and its members
Discrimination Behaving in an unfair way toward members of another group
Out-group A group of individuals that you do not belong to or identify with
In-group A group that you belong to or identify with
Personal/group Discrimination Discrepancy Members of groups experiencing discrimination to minimize discrimination directed toward themselves as individuals, but to agree with other group members that discrimination against the group as a whole is significant.
Auto-Stereotyping A belief system about discrimination that is widely shared by group members
Meta-Stereotyping A person's beliefs regarding the stereotype that out-group members hold about their own group
Attributions The inference processes that people use to assign cause and effect to behaviour
External Attribution Attributing the cause of a person's behaviour to an external event or situation in the environment
Internal Attribution Attributing the cause of a person's behaviour to an internal personality characteristic
Fundamental Attribution Error The fact that casual attributions tend to overestimate the influence of internal personal factors and underestimate the role of situational factors
Actor-Observer The tendency to attribute others behaviour to internal forces and our own behaviour to external forces
Self-Serving Bias The tendency to make internal attributions about our own behaviour when the outcome is positive and to blame the situation when our behaviour leads to something negative
Attitude A positive or negative evaluation or belief held about something which in return may affect behaviour; are typically broken down into cognitive, affective, and behavioral components
Cognitive Dissonance The tension produced when people act in a way that is inconsistent with their attitudes, attitude change may occur as result of attempting to reduce cognitive dissonance
Self-perception theory The idea that people use observations of their own behaviour as a basis for inferring their internal beliefs (Practice piano everyday, I must like music)
Central Route When motivated to process an incoming message we listen carefully to the arguments given and judge them on their merits
Peripheral Route When we are unable or unwilling to process a message carefully, our attitudes are more affected by superficial cues or mere exposure. (Funny ad on tv, gets my vote)
Social Influence The study of how the behaviours and thoughts of individuals are affected by the presence of others
Social Facilitation The enhancement in performance that is sometimes found when an individual performs in front of people
Social Interference The impairment in performance that is sometimes found when a person performs in front of people
Bystander Effect The reluctance to come to the aid of a person in need when other people are present
Diffusion of Responsibility When people know or think that others are present in a situation, they allow their sense of responsibility for action to diffuse.
Social Loafing The tendency to put out less effort when several people are supposed to be working on a task than when only one is working
Deindividualism The loss if individuality or depersonalization, that comes from being in a group
Conformity The tendency to go along with the wishes of the group; when people conform, their opinions, feelings, and behaviours generally start to move toward the group norm
Group Polarization The tendency for a groups dominant point of view to become stronger and more extreme with time
Groupthink The tendency for members of a group to become so interested in seeking a consensus or opinion that they start to ignore and even suppress dissenting views.
Obedience The form of compliance that occurs when people respond to the orders of an authority figure
Reciprocity The tendency for people to return in kind the feelings that are shown toward them
Ingration The attempt to get someone to like you for some ulterior motive
Passionate Love Powerful longing to be with a specific person; marked by a combination or intimacy and passion, but commitment may be lacking
Companionate Love Feelings of trust and companionship; marked by a combination of intimacy and commitment but passion may be lacknig
Aggression Behaviour meant to harm someone
Infatuated Love Just Passion
Liking Just intimacy
Empty Love Just commitment
Romantic Love Passion and Intimacy
Fatuous Love Passion and Commitment
Statistical Deviance Criterion Low frequency or occurrence among the members of a population
Cultural Deviance Criterion Behaviour is abnormal if it violates the rules of or accepted standards of society
Emotional Distress Criterion Behaviour is abnormal if it regularly leads to personal distress or emotional upset
Dysfunction Criterion Behaviour is abnormal if it interferes with the ability to pursue daily activities, such as work and relationships
Medical Model The view that abnormal behaviour is symptomatic of an underlying "disease" that can be "cured" with the appropriate therapy
Sociological Model The view that abnormality is labeled that each society assigns to behaviours that it finds unacceptable, even if the behaviours are not of criminal nature
DSM-IV The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, used for the diagnosis and classification of psychological disorders; comprises five major rating dimensions called axes
Anxiety Disorders A class of disorders marked by excessive worrying that interferes with daily life
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Excessive worrying or anxiety that lasts for 6 months but cannot be attributed to any one source
Panic Disorder AA condition marked by recurrent discrete episodes or attacks of extremely intense fear or dread
Agoraphobia Anxiety disorder that causes an individual to restrict their normal activities; tends to avoid public places out of fear that a panic attack will occur
OCD An anxiety disorder that manifests itself through persistent and uncontrollable obsessions or compulsions
Social Phobia An incapacitating fear of social interactions
Specific Phobic Disorder A highly focused fear of a specific object or situation
Somatoform Disorders Psychological disorders that focus on the physical body
Hypochondriasis Idea that you have developed a serious disease based on what turns out to be a misinterpretation or normal body reactions
Somatization Disorder Preocupation with body symptoms that have no identifiable physical cause
Conversion Disorder The presence of real physical problems such as blindness or paralysis that seem to have no identifiable physical cause
Dissociative Disorders A class of disorders characterized by the separation or dissociation of conscious awareness from previous thoughts or memories
Dissociative Amnesia A psychological disorder characterized by an inability to remember important personal information
Dissociative Fugue A loss of personal identity that is often accompanied by a flight from home
Dissociative Identity Disorder A condition in which a person alternates between what appear to be two or more personalities
Mood Disorders Prolonged and disabling disruptions in emotional state
Manic State Person is hyperactive, talkative, doesn't need sleep.
Schizophrenia A class of disorders characterized by fundamental disturbances in thought processes, emotion or behaviour
Antisocial Personality Disorder Criminal behaviour, failure to learn from punishment
Psychopathy Similar to Antisocial, as well as criminal activity, it focuses on underlying personality traits or manipulation, callousness and impulsive thrill seeking
Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective The idea that psychological disorders are influenced or caused by a combination of biological, psychological and social (environmental) factors
Learned Helplessness A general sense of helplessness that is acquired when people repeatedly fail in their attempts to control their environment; may play a role in depression
Created by: courterpounder
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