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Geo ch.13

Urban Patterns - Defining a City and Urban Models

central city an urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit known as a municipality
metropolitan statistical area (MSA) measures the functional area of an urban settlement – created by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to reflect the extensive area of economic and cultural influence of settlements
MSA encompasses urban area with pop. of at least 50,000, the county within which the city is located, adjacent counties with high pop. density and large % of people working in the central city's county
micropolitan statistical area (μSA) includes an urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is located, and adjacent counties tied to the city
core based statistical area (CBSA) any one MSA or μSA (938 as of 2018, including the 392 MSAs and the 546 μSAs)
combined statistical area (CSA) two or more contiguous CBSAs tied together by commuting patterns (175 as of 2018)
urban area consists of a central city and its surrounding built-up suburbs
urbanized area an urban area with at least 50,000 inhabitants
urban cluster an urban area with between 2,500 and 50,000 inhabitants
megalopolis a collection of adjacent or overlapping metropolitan areas that merge into a continuous urban region
Jean Gottmann geographer who applied the term Megalopolis to the continuous urban area in NE US from Boston to south of DC
US urban complexes southern Great Lakes (Milwaukee to Pittsburgh) and southern California (Los Angeles to Tijuana)
central business district (CBD) the area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
the 100 percent corner large department stores would cluster near one intersection called this
skyscrapers the first ones built in Chicago in the 1880s, made possible by several inventions - the elevator, steel girders, and tempered glass
concentric zone model a city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings
Ernest Burgess created the concentric zone model in 1923
5 rings of concentric zone model 1. central business district, 2. zone of transportation, 3. zone of independent workers' homes, 4. zone of better residences, 5. commuter's zone
sector model a city develops in a series of sectors
Homer Hoyt created the sector model in 1939
multiple nuclei model a city is a complex structure that includes a CBD as well as other centers around which activities occur
Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman created the multiple nuclei model in 1945
node central points in the city - ex. a port, neighborhood business center, university, airport, and park
multiple nuclei theory states that some activities are attracted to particular nodes, whereas others try to avoid them - ex. heavy industry and high-class housing rarely exist in the same place
galactic (or peripheral) model an urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and service nodes or nuclei tied together by a beltway or ring road
Chauncy Harris helped create the multiple nuclei model and created the galactic (or peripheral) model in 1960 as a modification of the nuclei model
edge cities the nodes of consumer and business services around the beltway
social area analysis the study of where people of varying living standards, ethnic background, and lifestyle live within an urban area
census tracts urban areas in the US are divided into these, each contain approximately 5,000 residents and correspond, where possible, to neighborhood boundaries
blocks a collection of several dozen houses - 4 streets in urban areas
block group a collection of several neighboring blocks
CBDs in Europe more people live downtown - more daily consumer services - most prominent buildings are churches/royal places - contain business/professional services - rents are higher
Kubla Khan founder of the Yuan Dynasty, constructed a new city called Dadu beginning in 1264
Dadu the name for early Beijing, constructed during the Yuan Dynasty by Kubla Khan
Qionghua Island the heart of Dadu in the Yuan Dynasty, 3 palaces built here in the middle of Taiye Lake
Forbidden City and Temple of Heaven built during the Ming Dynasty, replaced the imperial palace
Beijing means "Northern Capital," got its name during the Ming Dynasty in 1403
Laws of the Indies all Spanish cities in Latin America were built according to this, which was drafted in 1573
Fès (Fez), Morocco example of a city that consists of two separate and distinct nodes - a precolonial city that existed before the French gained control and one built by the French colonialists
Medinah a marketplace/the commercial core of the precolonial Islamic city, which was laid out surrounding a mosque with this as the center
Saigon, Vietnam was a French colonial city but is now Ho Chi Minh City, was built by completely demolishing the existing city without leaving a trace
Created by: imr36093
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