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Geo ch.11 (4)

Industry and Energy - Recycling and Changing Industry

recycling the separation, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of the unwanted material
4 ways to recycle curbside programs, drop-off centers, buy-back centers (commercial operations pay consumers for recycled materials), deposit programs (price of a beverage can include a deposit fee that is returned when the container is returned)
remanufacturing the rebuilding of a product to specifications of the original manufactured product using a combination of reused, repaired, and new parts
4 major manufacturing sectors account for more than 1/2 the recycling activity - paper mills, steel mills, plastic converters, and iron and steel foundries
paper most types can be recycled
plastic different types cannot be mixed
glass can be used repeatedly with no loss in quality
aluminum principle source is beverage containers
new international division of labor selective transfer of some jobs to developing countries
outsourcing turning over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers, how transnational corporations allocate production to low-wage countries
vertical integration a company controls all phases of a highly complex production process
Foxconn the world’s largest electronics contractor, employs 1 million in China
maquiladoras plants in Mexico near the US border
BRICS an acronym coined by the investment banking firm Goldman Sachs for Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa – much of the world’s manufacturing growth is expected to cluster in these countries
spinning clothing production - principal natural fiber is cotton
weaving clothing production - for mechanized weaving, labor constitutes a high % of the total production cost - China and India are the dominant fabric producers
Barthelemy Thimonnier French tailor, invented the 1st functional sewing machine in 1830
Isaac Singer manufactured the 1st commercially successful sewing machine in the US in the 1850s
4 main textile products garments, carpets, home products like bed linens and curtains, and industrial items like headliners and motor vehicles
steel an alloy of iron that is manufactured by removing impurities in iron and adding desirable elements
2 changes in situation factors relative importance of the main markets and increasing importance of proximity to markets
2 raw materials to make steel iron and steel
steel mills in the mid-1800s concentrated around Pittsburgh because iron and coal mined there
steel mills in the late-1800s mills built around Lake Eerie because discovery of iron in Minnesota
steel mills in the early-1900s South Lake Michigan because needed more iron than coal
steel mills in the mid-1900s East and West coasts because iron started coming from other countries
steel mills in the late-1900s most integrated steel mills closed
steel minimills main input is scrap metal, less expensive, and can locate near markets
right to work law requires a factory to maintain an “open shop” and prohibits a “closed shop”
closed shop a company and a union agree that everyone must join the union to work in the factory
open shop a union and a company may not negotiate a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment
2 important site and situation factors in Europe low wage but relatively skilled labor and proximity to Western Europe markets
Created by: imr36093
Popular Geography sets




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