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Being Alive--Science

Aaron's Science Study sheet 3/11/10

All Life must meet these 4 criteria contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid); is able to take energy from it's surroundings and convert it to energy that helps it live; senses changes in surroundings and can respond; is able to reproduce.
DNA is... a protein molecule, consisting of millions of atoms, which provides the information to organize lifeless chemicals into a living system. The is information storage is more effecient that computers.
DNA is shaped like... A double helix (sort of a pair of spirals) and contains 4 nucleotides which always pair off. (cytosine with guanine & adenine with thymine)
How can DNA reproduce itself? It splits down the middle and the nucleotides just match up again.
Energy for living things comes from where? Sun
Plants combine water, carbon dioxide and energy from the sun to produce what? Food, such as glucose or starch and oxygen.
What is photosynthesis? Plants combining water, carbon dioxide and energy from the sun to make food, such as glucose, starch and oxygen.
When does metabolism occur? When a living organism uses energy to develop, grow and sustain itself.
How do animals break down the food which a plant formed from photosynthesis? In tiny steps like combustion
Animals need oxygen to break down the fuel to produce what? energy, carbon dioxide and water.
Photosynthesis in plants... plants take in water + carbon dioxide + energy (sun) == fuel + oxygen
Metabolism is... we take in fuel + oxygen === and produce energy + water + carbon dioxide.
What are the main fuels--macronutrients--that we use? proteins, carbohydrates and fats
What is the basic unit of life? a cell
What makes a cell prokaryotic? If the DNA is not in a nucleus and there are no other organelles.
What makes a cell eukaryotic? If the DNA is in a nucleus and there are other organelles.
What are the 5 Kingdoms of Living Organisms? Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia
What is the only Kingdom that has prokaryotic cells? Monera
Bacteria are in what Kingdom? Monera
Bacteria that cause disease are called... Pathogenic
Bacteria growth can be inhibited by... salt, acid (like vinegar), removing moisture, extreme heat (cooking), and cold temperatures (refrigerator)
One-celled eukaryotics organisms are called... protozoa
A protozoa... move around like little animals or algae.
Algae is somewhat like plants but withour any specialized structures like roots, stems and leaves.
Algae includes those amazing diatoms.. which are the most important living group in terms of photosynthesis.
Mushrooms, yeast and mold are.... Fungi
Fungi are decomposers who... breakdown dead organisms into nutrients which can be reused.
Plants are in the Plantae Kingdom They have specialized parts such as roots, stems and leaves.
A cell wall and a central vacuole do what for plants? Keep the cells rigid when they have enough fluid.
Why are plants called producers? becauses they perform photosynthesis.
Animals are in what kingdom? Animalia
Animal cells... Have no cell walls
Animalia kingdom includes... bird, insects, worms, humans, etc.
How many bones are in the human body? 206
How many different kinds of skeletal muscles are in the human body? 640
Involuntary or smooth muscles do what? keep your heart, lungs, digestion, etc. going without your conscious effort. Pairs of muscles contract and relax to make a particular movement, which might involve over 30 muscles working together.
How are joints protected? The end of the bone is covered in cartilage, and it is lubricated by a fluid produced by a sac at the joint.
What are the 4 types of joints? Hinge, Saddle, ball & socket and washer joints.
What are some examples of hinge joints? Knee or elbow
What is an example of a saddle joint? Ankle
What are some examples of ball and socket joints? Hip or Shoulder
Where is the only place you can find washer joints? in the backbone
What is symbiosis? two or more organisms living together so that each is benefitted.
What is one example of symbiosis in the human body? Beneficial bacteria eat the sweat our skin produces, and give off and acid that keeps pathogenic bacteria away.
What is another example of symbiosis in the human body? In our colon, bacteria consume food for themselves, and produce vitamin K, biotin, and folic acid which our bodies need.
There are over 100 trillion bacteria in your intestines... which are beneficial there but harmful in other parts of the body.
Created by: mom4ells