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Geo ch.10


development the process of improving the conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
developed country has progressed further along the development continuum
developing country : has made some progress toward development, though less than the developed countries – UN divides them into high, medium, and low developing
Human Development Index (HDI) measures the level of development for a country through a combination of three factors: a decent standard of living, a long and healthy life, and access to knowledge
Gross National Income (GNI) the value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that leaves and enters the country
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) an adjustment made to the GNI to account for differences among countries in the cost of goods
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) also the value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year – does not account for money that leaves and enters the country
primary sector includes activities that directly extract materials from Earth through agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestry
secondary sector includes manufacturers that process, transform, and assemble raw materials into useful products as well as industries that fabricate manufactured goods into finished consumer goods
tertiary sector involves the provision of goods and services to people in exchange for payment, such as retailing, banking, law, education, and government
productivity the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
pupil/teacher ratio the number of enrolled students divided by the number of teachers – fewer pupils, more likely each student will receive effective instruction
literacy rate the percentage of a country’s people who can read and write
Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) modifies the HDI to account for inequality within a country
Immanuel Wallerstein a U.S. social scientist, describes the relationship between developed and developing countries as one of “core” and “periphery”
world-systems theory in an increasingly unified world economy, developed countries form an inner core area, whereas developing countries occupy peripheral locations
semi-periphery countries intermediate in level of economic development or situated close to both core and periphery regions
gender inequality index measures the gender gap in the level of achievement in three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment, and the labor market
gender development index measures the gender gap in the level of achievement for the three dimensions of the Human Development Index: income, education, and life expectancy
empowerment the ability of women to achieve improvements in their own status–that is, to achieve economic and political power
female labor force participation rate the percentage of women holding full-time jobs outside the home
adolescent fertility rate the number of births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 19
2 fundamental obstacles to development Adopting policies that successfully promote and sustain development and finding funds to pay for development
self-sufficiency path Countries encourage domestic production of goods, discourage foreign ownership of businesses and resources, and protect their businesses from international competition
key elements of self-sufficiency import limits, insulation, equal investment, equal income
international trade path Countries open themselves to foreign investment and international markets
W.W. Rostow proposed a 5-stage development model in the 1950s: Rostow's international trade model
traditional society not yet started development, high % in agriculture, high % of wealth allocated to "unproductive" activities such as military and religion
preconditions for takeoff elite group initiates economic activities, country invests in new technology and infrastructure, support from international funding
takeoff rapid growth from limited number of economic activities such as textiles or food products, these industries become productive while other sectors of the economy are still traditional
drive to maturity modern technology diffuses to a wide variety of industries which then experience rapid economic growth, workers become more skilled and specialized
age of mass consumption economy shifts from heavy industry to consumer goods
Created by: imr36093
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